• Abbey, the Black, Kilkenny, 318.
    • of Mellifont, 231.
    • of St. Mary, 317.
    • of Holy Cross, 317.
    • of Dunbrody, 289.
    • of Tintern, 317.
    • of St. Saviour's, Dublin, 318.
    • of St. Thomas the Martyr, 287.
    • of Boyle, 316.
  • Abercrombie, Sir Ralph, 623.
  • Act of Emancipation passed, 647.
  • Adamnan, St., 172.
  • Adrian's Bull, 274.
  • Aedh, St., 221.
  • Aengus, St., 179
    • his Festology, 180
    • his Chronicle, 41.
  • Aengus Grove, Synod at, 227.
  • Aengus, King, baptism of, 123
    • his death, 130
    • ancestor of the O'Keeffes, O'Sullivans, O'Callahans, and MacCarthys, 130.
  • Africa, Phoenician circumnavigation of, 69.
  • Agrarian outrages and their causes, 613.
  • Agricola, 95.
  • Aideadh Chonchobair, legend of, 127.
  • Ailbhé, Princess, 105.
  • Ainmire, Hugh, 167.
  • All Hallows Eve, 88n.
  • Altan, St., 177.
  • Amalgaidh, King, and his seven sons, 123.
  • Amato, prelate who consecrated St. Patrick, 115.
  • Amlaff the Dane, 195
    • in Dublin, 191.
  • Ancient pitcher, 240.
  • Andrew, St., Church of, in Henry II.'s time, 272.
  • Anglo-Irish and old Irish, their differences at Kilkenny, 487.
  • Annals of Ulster, 39
    • compiled by Four Masters, 51
    • accounts in, confirmed _ab extra_, 68
    • poetry from, 198
    • kept with great care, 233
    • dedication of, 53
    • quotations from, 58, 59, 75, 88, 90, 94, 132, 144, 198, 199, 218, 232n, 265, 283, 388, 307, 312n. 313.
    • of Tighernach, 48.
    • of Innis MacNerinn, 39.
    • of Innisfallen, 39.
    • of Boyle, 39.
    • of Clonmacnois, 60n.
    • of Loch Cé, 115.
    • of Ballitore, 630.
    • preserved by Celtic Race, 67.
  • Anselm, St., commends the Irish prelates, 229.
  • Antiquities of pre-Christian Erinn, 148.
  • Antwerp, Irish soldiers in, 478.
  • Aqua vini and aqua vitæ, 245.
  • Architecture of Tara, 167.
  • Ardmore round tower, 237.
  • Armagh, See of, 114
    • founded, 120
    • streets of, 187n.
  • Arnold on pedigree, 85n.
    • on history taught by verse, 86n.
  • Athlone, siege of, 568
    • castle of, 314
    • bridge built, 308n.
  • Attacotti, revolt of the, 96.
  • Augustinians, Order of, 316.


  • Bachall Isu, St. Patrick's, 114
    • its wanton destruction, 115.
  • Ballitore, sufferings in, 630.
  • Balor of the Evil Eye, 64.
  • Banbha, the Lady, 43.
  • Banqueting hall at Tara, 160.
  • Baptism, ceremonies at, 229.
  • Baraid, a Scandinavian chief, 195.
  • Barbadoes, the Irish seat as slaves to, 515.
  • Bards of Erinn, or filés, 40.
  • Barretts, feud between Cusacks and, 332.
  • Barrington, Sir Jonah, on the last night of Irish Parliament, 639.
  • Barry, an Irishman, 601.
  • Barrys and Roches, 445.
  • Battle of Magh Tuireadh, 61.
    • of Sliabh Mis, 75.
    • at Taillten, 75.
    • between the Firbolgs and Tuatha Dé Dananns, 62.
    • Connor, 343.
    • of Géisill, 78n.
    • of Bealagh Mughna (Ballaghmoon), Kildare, 193.
    • of Dundalk, 201.
    • of Sulcoit, near Tipperary, 205.
    • of Belach-Lechta, near Macroom, co. Cork, 207.
    • of Glen-Mama (Glen of the Gap), near Dunlavin, 208.
    • of Clontarf, 214.
    • of Downpatrick, 325.
    • of Benburb, 493.
    • of the Boyne, 563.
    • of Aughrim, 570.
    • of the Ford of Comar, Westmeath, 160.
    • of Magh-Rath, 171.
    • of Almhain (near Kildare), 186.
    • of Desertcreaght, 332.
    • of St. Callixtus' day, 352.
    • of Ford of the Biscuits, 451.
  • Beare, O'Sullivan, his History, 534.
  • Beasts, the three, to be hunted, 517.
  • Bede's account of Ireland, 79
    • on Irish saints, 173.
  • Belgium, MSS. preserved in, 46.
  • Beltinne, or fire of Baal, 119
    • origin of, 164.
  • Benignus, St., St. Patrick's successor in the See of Armagh. 116.
  • Berchau, St., 162.
  • Beresford faction, 616.
  • Bill, curious, of a play, 547n.
  • Bishops, Protestant, indifferent about regular ordination, 536.
  • Black Death. 86.
  • Blefed or pestilence, 162.
  • Bog butter and cheese, 246.
  • Bohun, Humphrey de, 270.
  • Bonnell, his statistics, 540.
  • Book, a, given for a ransom, 377.
  • Books preserved, list of, 39, 44
    • list of lost, 39, 40.
  • Book of Chronicum Scotorum, 39.
    • of Laws, 40.
    • of Ballymote, 37.
    • of Leinster, 40.
    • of Lecain, 37
      • when written, 50n.
    • Annals of Ulster, 39.
      • of Innisfallen, 39.
      • of Boyle, 39.
      • of Four Masters, 51.
      • of Tighernach, 39.
      • of Inis MacNerinn, 39.
      • of Clonmacnois, 60n.
    • Speckled, 37.
    • Cuilmenn, 40.
    • Saltair of Tara, 39
      • when written 40.
    • of Uachongbhail, 39.
    • Cin Droma Snechta, 39
      • when compiled, 43.
    • Saltair of Cashel, 39
      • when compiled, 44.
    • Saltair of Cormac, 41.
    • of St. Mochta, 44.
    • of Cuana, 44.
    • of Dubhdaleithe, 44.
    • Saltair of Temair, 43.
    • Saltair-na-Rann, 41.
    • of Leabhar buidhe Sláine, 44.
    • of Leabhar na h-Uidhre, 44.
    • of Eochaidh O'Flannagain, 44.
    • of Inis an Duin, 44.
    • Short, of St. Buithe's Monastery, 44.
    • of Flann of St. Buithe's Monastery, 44.
    • of Flann of Dungeimhin (Dungiven, co. Derry), 44.
    • of Dun da Leth Ghlas (Downpatrick), 44.
    • of Doiré (Derry), 44.
    • of Sabhall Phatraic (co. Down), 44.
    • of Uachongbhail (Navan), 44.
    • Leabhar dubh Molaga, 44.
    • Leabhar buidhe Moling, 44.
    • Leabhar buidhe Mhic Murchadha, 44.
    • Leabhar Arda Macha. 44.
    • Leabhar ruadh Mhic Aedhagain, 44.
    • Leabhar breac Mhic Aedhagain, 44.
    • of O'Scoba of Cluain Mhic Nois (or Clonmacnois), 44.
    • of Leabhar fada Leithghlinne, 44.
  • Book of Invasions, 54.
    • of Duil Droma Ceata, 44
    • of Clonsost, (Queen's county), 44.
    • of Trias Thaumaturgas, 52.
    • of Hispania Illustrata, 70,
    • of Acaill, 104.
    • of Armagh, 109.
    • of Rights, 253n.
  • Boromean Tribute, the origin of, 98
    • remitted, 185.
  • Boulter, Dr., 581.
  • Bran Dubh, bravery and stratagem of, 168.
  • Bravery of the Dalcassians, 218.
  • Breas, the warrior, 62.
  • Brehon laws, 147
    • by whom compiled, 144.
  • Brendan, St. and his voyages, 169.
  • Brian Boroimhé, 205
    • avenges the death of Mahoun, 207
    • deposes Malachy, 209
    • his wife, 211
    • his death, 217
    • romantic ballad of the lady, 209
    • originator of surnames, 210n.
  • Brigid, St., her birthplace, 131.
  • Briton, origin of name, 60.
  • Brodir, the apostate Dane, 212
    • kills Brian Boroimhé, 217.
  • Browne, Dr., 395.
  • Bruce, invasion of, 350.
  • Bruce's, Edward, campaign, 342
    • his death, 345.
  • Brunehalt, Queen, 173.
  • Burke, MacWilliam, 299
    • head of the Burke family in Ireland, 299.
  • Burke, MacWilliam, 326
    • wars of, with the FitzGeralds, 326
    • defeat of, by O'Connor, 328.
  • Burke, celebrated statesman of 18th century, 593
    • his school days, 594
    • his hatred of oppression, 595
    • his marriage, 596
    • becomes secretary, 597
    • his maiden speech, 598
    • on Indian policy, 604.
  • Burkes and Geraldines, 333.
  • Burgat, Dr., his Brevis Relatio, 518n.
  • Burgo, Richard de, 309.
  • Burnt Njal, quotations from, 217.
  • Butlers, the, their history, 354.


  • Cæsar, his accounts of the Druids, 138.
  • Cairbré, Satire of, 63.
  • Cairbré, Cinn-Cait, 97.
  • Cairbrés, the three, 102.
  • Caligraphy, Irish skilled in, 185.
  • Callaghan of Cashel, 196.
  • Cambridge, treatise on origin of, 71.
  • Camden on Ogygia, 72.
  • Cannibalism, charge of, refuted, 74.
  • Cannon-balls first used, 381n.
  • Canons, St. Patrick's, 117.
  • Carew's, Sir P., claim, 428.
  • Carhampton, Lord, cruelties of, 617n.
  • Carmelite monasteries, 323.
  • Cashel, the Saltair of, 44.
    • the Synod of, 275.
    • massacre at, 496.
  • Castlehaven Memoirs, 482n.
  • Casts for celts, 246.
  • Cataldus, St., 178.
  • Catalogue of lost books, 44.
  • Cathair Crofinn, a circular fort, 165.
  • Cathal Carragh, 296.
  • Cathal Crovderg, 296.
  • Catholic Emancipation, 647.
    • worship publicly restored, 411,
    • Association, 583.
    • priests, their peculiar position and difficulties, 586.
    • question, a ministerial difficulty, 639.
    • delegates met in Dublin, 615.
  • Catholics, Orangemen bribed to persecute, 616n
    • penal laws against, 576.
  • Cauldrons as tribute, 241.
  • Cavalry, 309n.
  • Ceann Cruach, great ancient idol of the Irish, 121.
  • Ceasair, taking of Erinn by, 54
    • landing in Ireland of, 57.
  • Celedabhaill, his quatrains, 198.
  • Celestine, Pope, sends St. Patrick to Ireland, 115.
  • Celsus, St., 227
    • when buried, 227.
  • Celtic language, antiquity of, 147
    • remains of, 46.
  • Celtic literature, 37.
  • Celtic and Roman history, 81.
  • Celts, description of, 160.
  • Chariots used in Ireland, 167.
  • Charlemont, Earl of, his life, 607.
  • Charles I., reign of, 473
    • his "faith," 475.
  • Charles II., reign of, 520
    • his treatment of the loyalists, 521.
  • Chesterfield and Adam Smith on Ireland, 603.
  • Chichester, Sir John, 580.
  • Chichester's Parliament, 471.
  • Chieftains, Irish, 303.
  • Child, interment of a, 157n.
  • Christ, the age of, 94.
  • Christian missions, 108.
  • Christianity, introduction of, 112.
  • Chronicle of Cormac MacCullinan, 41.
    • of Aengus Ceilé Dé, 41.
    • of Richard of Cirencester, 139.
  • Chronicum Scotorum, 58
    • compiled by, 50
    • account in, 57
    • on Partholan's landing in Ireland, 58.
  • Chronology, difficulties of, 44
    • Irish, 80.
  • Cin Droma Snechta, 39
    • quotations from, 43
    • on Irish immigration, 58.
  • Circular forts, 165.
  • Cistercians, Order of, 316.
  • Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria, 155.
  • Clanrickarde, Earl of, 356.
  • Clare, Lord, on Irish cultivation, 638.
  • Clare election, the, 649.
  • Clarence, Duke of, 371.
  • Clergy, state of the Catholic, in the reign of Elizabeth, 426.
  • Clonmacnois, the Annals of, 60n.
  • Clubs in the seventeenth century, 545
  • Clynn, the annalist, 319.
  • Cobhthach Cael, 90.
  • Codex, containing Venerable Bede's works, 47.
  • Coigley, Father, arrested and hanged, 624.
  • Colgan, his labours, 52
    • mention of, 534.
  • College of Physicians, establishment of, in Dublin, 543.
  • Colleges, continental, established for Irish students, 535.
  • Colonists--Scythians, Greeks, 68.
  • Colonization, proofs of our early, 55
    • the last, 75.
  • Columba, St., and the Bards, 168.
  • Columbanus, St., his rule, 173
    • on papal supremacy, 176.
  • Commercial status of Irish towns, 540.
  • Comyn, John, Archbishop of Dublin, 291
    • his imprisonment, 295.
  • Conchessa, 112.
  • Confessions, St. Patrick's, 113.
  • Conairé II., 103
    • collects laws, 104.
  • Conn of the Hundred Battles, 101.
  • Conn's half of Ireland, 102.
  • Connaught, ancient, 64
    • massacre in, 297
    • three claimants for, 307
    • rising of the men, 323
    • plantation of, 475.
  • Conor Mac Nessa, legend of, 127
    • death of, 128.
  • Controversy, theological, of the "Three Chapters," 175.
  • Cooke, Mr., publishes a pamphlet, 631.
  • Coote's cruelties, 482.
  • Cork Militia, cruelties of the, 626.
  • Cormac, author of Saltair of Tara, 104.
  • Council at Tara, 172.
  • Courcy, John de, in Ulster, 286
    • his valour, 286
    • his defeat in Antrim, 288
    • his death. 298.
  • Craftiné, the poet, 91.
  • Crannoges, 159.
  • Cranmer, Archbishop, 410.
  • Cremation not usual in Erinn, 155.
  • Crom Chonaill, the, 162.
  • Cromlechs, 155
    • in the Phoenix Park, 161.
  • Cromwell arrives in Ireland, 500
    • marches to Drogheda, 500
    • massacre at Drogheda. 501
    • letters, 502
    • his cruelties, 503
    • brutality of his soldiers, 503
    • his massacre at Wexford, 503.
  • Cromwellian settlement in Ireland, 512n.
  • Crovderg, Hugh, 307
    • his death, 308.
  • Cruelties of English officers, 417.
  • Crystède, his account of Ireland, 363.
  • Cuilmenn, the, 40.
  • Culdees, the, 182
    • question on the 179n.
  • Curia Regis, held at Lismore, 273.
  • Curragh of Kildare, 255.
  • Curran, his life, 606.
  • Cusack, Sir Thomas. 409
    • favours O'Neill, 421.
  • Custom-house built, 638.


  • Dá Derga, destruction of the court of, 91.
  • Dagges, 413n.
  • Dalriada, the Irish, 131.
  • Danes, Malachy's exploits against the, 207
    • in Ireland, 204
    • cruelties of the, 190
    • divided into Black and White Gentiles, 191
    • found sea-port towns, 200
    • supposed conversion of, 204
    • pipes, 241
    • the Dalcassians fight the, 205.
  • Danish fortress in Dublin, 278n
    • the first invasion, 188
    • attempted second invasion, 224
    • pirates, first raid of the, 188
    • valour, battle of Clontarf, 215.
  • Dante, 385.
  • D'Alton on the Round Towers, 163
    • on History, Religion, &c., of Ancient Ireland, 68n.
  • Dathi, 107.
  • Defective Titles, Commission of, 475.
  • Derry, siege of, 558.
  • Dervorgil, the Lady, 234.
  • Desmond, Earls of, their ancestors and descendants, 282n.
    • Castle, 221.
    • Earl of, his witty reply, 384.
  • Destruction of the idols, 121.
  • Details of the atrocities of the military, 621.
  • Diarmaid, Princess, pursuit of, 106.
  • Diarmaid's reign, misfortunes of, 167.
  • Dicho, St. Patrick's first convert, 116.
  • Dinnseanchus, a topographical work, 164.
  • Dog, story of a faithful, 571.
  • Domhnach, Gaedhilic term for Sunday, 121.
  • Domhnach Airgid, 134n.
  • Dominican Order in Ireland, 318.
  • Donatus, St., 178.
  • Doneraile Conspiracy, 643.
  • Dowdall, Dr., opposition of, 410.
  • Downpatrick, battle of, 325.
  • Drapier's Letters, the, 581.
  • Dress of the poorer classes in Ireland in seventeenth century, 552.
  • Drink of the ancient Irish, 243.
  • Drinking vessels of different kinds, 243.
  • Druids and their teaching, 137.
  • Drumceat, first convention held at, 167.
  • Drury, his cruelties, 443
    • his death, 443
  • Dubhdaleithe, Book of, 44.
  • Dublin in the seventeenth century, 544.
  • Dublin, fashionable and prosperous, 638.
  • Dubtach salutes St. Patrick at Tara, 121.
  • Duke of Clarence, Viceroy, 371.
  • Duke of York, viceroyalty of, 375.
  • Dunboy, siege of, 460.
  • Duncheadh, St., 221.
  • Dundalk, battle of, 201.


  • Early missionaries. 108.
  • Eber, 84.
  • Ecclesiastics, cruelties practised on, 452.
  • Ecclesiastical property, confiscation of, 403.
  • Edward I., reign of, 329.
  • Elizabeth, Queen, accession of, 412
    • martyrs in the reign of, 416.
  • Emania, Palace of, 89.
  • Embargo laws, 578.
  • Emmet's career, 640.
  • Enda, St., 169.
  • English, invasion of the, 257.
    • come to Ireland for instruction, 178.
    • quarrels of, barons, 300.
    • law refused to Ireland, 362.
    • writers, mistakes of, 361.
    • schism, real cause of, 394.
    • Irish emigrants defeat the, 584.
  • Enniskilleners, cruelties of the, 559.
  • Eras, three, in Irish history, 387.
  • Eremon, reign of, 77
    • his death, 78
    • families descended from, 84.
  • Eric, or compensation for murder, 146.
  • Erinn, St. Patrick's mission to, 112.
    • ancient chronicles of, 48n.
    • pre-Noahacian colonization of, 55.
    • takings of, 57.
    • early geographical accounts of, 72.
    • social accounts of, 73.
    • ancient laws of, 144.
    • religion of, 137.
    • customs of, 139.
    • language of, 147.
    • antiquities of, 153.
    • five great roads of ancient, 101.
  • Essex, Earl of, tries to colonize Ulster, 432
    • his interview with O'Neill, 456
    • his death, 433.
  • Ethnea, Princess, 123.
  • Eva, her marriage with Strongbow, 264.
  • Exchequer of the King of England in Dublin, fourteenth century, 339.
  • Exiled Irishmen, 478.


  • Fairs, Irish, seventeenth century, 538.
  • Falkland, Lord, suspected of favouring the Catholics, 473.
  • Fauna, description of, 253.
  • Fené-men, the, 42n.
  • Fenian poems and tales, 87
    • ascribed to, 105.
  • Fes, or triennial assembly, 163.
  • Fethlimia, Princess, 122.
  • Fiacc's Hymn, Scholiast on, 111.
  • Fidh Aengussa, the Synod of, 227.
  • Fifth taking of Ireland, 62,
  • Fiacre, St., 177.
  • Finnachta Fleadhach, the Hospitable, 171.
  • Finnen, St., 162,
  • Fintan, son of Bochra, the Irish historian, 40.
  • Firbolg chiefs, division of Ireland by, 60
    • battles of, 62.
  • Fish in Ireland, 80n
    • anecdote on, 72n.
  • FitzAldelm, his viceroyalty, 285
    • his death, 299.
  • FitzGerald, war between De Burgo and, 326.
  • FitzGerald, war between De Vesci and, 333.
  • FitzGerald, Lord Edward, joins the United Irishmen, 618
    • arrest of, 624
    • his death, 624.
  • Fithil, the poet, 40.
  • FitzMaurice obtains foreign aid, 441
    • his death, 443.
  • FitzStephen, 260.
  • FitzWilliam, Earl, viceroyalty, of 616.
  • Flahertach, Abbot, and King of Munster, 194
  • Flann, his Synchronisms, 49
    • synchronizes the chiefs and monarchs with the kings of Erinn, 50.
  • Flann, King, his reign, 192.
  • Flint used to make weapons of defence, 160.
  • Flood, his life, 607.
  • Flora, description of, 253.
  • Foillan, St., 177.
  • Fomorians, the, 60-64.
  • Food of the ancient Irish, 241
    • of poorer classes in seventeenth century, 553.
  • Ford of the Biscuits, battle of, 451.
  • Fothadh of the Canons, 180.
  • Franciscan Order in Ireland, 319
    • their patriotism, 344
    • their convents, 312
    • remarkable spring, 319
    • persecution of, 474.
  • Friars Preachers, Order of, 318.
  • Fridolin, St., 178.
  • Froude's History of England,
    • quotations from his account of the English clergy, 440.
  • Fursey, St., 177.


  • Gall, St., 177.
  • Galls, description of, 187n.
  • Gallic Church, labours of the Irish in 177.
  • Gaul, the Celts of, 73.
    • Irish saints venerated in, 183.
  • Géisill, battle of, 78n.
  • Genealogies, differences between, and pedigrees, 80-82.
    • Milesian, 79.
    • peculiar historical value of, 80.
    • and pedigrees, 51.
  • General Assembly at Kilkenny, 485.
  • Geographical accounts of Ireland, 72
  • George I., 582.
  • Geraldines, rising of, 1534, 390
    • ancestor of the, 333
    • their wars, 334
    • defeated at Kenmare, 325.
  • Germanus, St., his Canons, 117.
  • Gertrude, St., daughter of King Pepin, 177.
  • Gherardini, letter from the, 384.
  • Gilla Caemhain, an Irish writer, 49
    • gives annals of all times, 49.
  • Ginkell, General, 568.
  • Glundubh, Nial, lamentation for, 196.
  • Gold ornaments, 157.
  • Goldsmith, his life, 609.
  • Gordon's, Mr., account of the atrocities of the military, 628, 629.
  • Gormgal, St., 221.
  • Gormflaith, Brian Boroimhé's wife, 210.
  • Gospels, the, used by St. Patrick, 134.
  • Graces, the, 474.
  • Grammatica Celtica, 46.
  • Granard and Staigue, 237.
  • Grattan's demand for Irish independence, 590
    • his life, 607
    • entrance into the Imperial Parliament, 640.
  • Grainné, pursuit of, and Diarmaid, 106.
  • Greeks said to have visited Ireland, 139.
  • Grey, Lord, desecrates churches, 133.
  • Grey, John de, 301.
  • Guaire, his hostility to St. Columba, 167.


  • Harp, when first used as an emblem, 249.
  • Haverty's History of Ireland, 221n.
  • Henry II. lands in Ireland, 270
    • produces the Bull, 274
    • makes his son Lord of Ireland, 287
    • holds a synod at Cashel, 273
    • his palace, 272
  • Henry IV., his reign, 368
    • his death, 294.
  • Henry V., 369.
  • Henry VI., Wars of the Roses, 371.
  • Henry VII., 379.
  • Henry VIII., 387
    • persecutions during the reign of, 401
    • Dr. Browne's letter to, 399.
  • Herodotus, quotations from, 69.
  • Hibernia, the first buried in, 57.
  • Himantiliginos, game of, 141.
  • Himerus and Iberus, 70.
  • Hispania Illustrata, 70.
  • Historians of Erinn, 40.
  • Historians of the seventeenth century, 531.
  • Historic Tales, 86.
  • Historical value of genealogies, 80, 87.
  • History, Ecclesiastical, 227.
  • History of the Exile, 91.
  • Hoggen's Butt, and Le Hogges, 272.
  • Holy wells not superstitious, 143.
  • Honorius III., 305.
  • Howth family founded, 298n.
  • Hua Alta, race of, 125.
  • Hy-Figeinte (Munster), 125.
  • Hy-Kinsallagh (co. Carlow), 125.
  • Hymn of St. Fiacc, 117.
    • of St. Patrick, 120.
  • Hy-Nials, contention between the, 223
    • palace of, 224
    • the northern, 192
    • divided into two clans, 204.


  • Idols, worship of, 88.
  • Immoralities of the reformed clergy, 404.
  • Imperial standard, 639.
  • Inchiquin, 488
    • massacre at Cashel by, 496.
  • Innocent I., 100.
  • Innocent X., 490.
  • Insult to the Irish peeresses, 608.
  • Insurrection in Wexford, 626.
    • in Ulster, 629.
  • Ireland, climate of, 80,
    • colonization of, 57.
    • article on, in Rees' Cyclopædia, 67.
    • last colonization of, 75.
    • ancient laws of, 144.
    • antiquarian remains in, 153.
    • first mill in, 165.
    • fauna and flora of, 253.
    • literary ladies in, 374.
    • persecutions in, 388.
  • Ireland, ecclesiastical property forfeited in, 403.
    • plantations attempted in, 429, 432.
    • social life in, seventeenth century, 529.
    • before the Union, and after, 637.
    • early geographical account of, 72.
    • early social account of, 73.
    • Bede's account of, 79.
    • the Romans feared to invade, 95.
    • Saxon invasion of, 185.
    • first Danish invasion of, 188
      • second invasion, 224.
    • the circuit of, 197.
    • Murtough's circuit of, 224.
    • Spenser's account of, 439.
    • division of, by the Firbolg chiefs, 60.
    • receives the faith generously, 111.
    • given the name of Hibernia, 70.
    • the first writer who names, 71.
    • called Iernis, 71.
  • Ireton's cruelties and miserable death, 507.
  • Irish genealogies, their rise, 85.
    • keen, 141.
    • painters, 608.
    • musicians, 608.
    • MSS., 45.
    • authors, 608.
    • actors, 608.
    • missionaries, 173.
    • missionary saints, 178.
    • poetry, 180.
    • poets, 605.
    • bishops at the Council of Lateran, 289.
    • war-cries forbidden, 383.
    • pedigrees, their importance, 81.
    • people transplanted as slaves to Barbadoes, 514.
    • chronology compared with Roman, 81.
    • schools and scholars, 183.
    • alphabet, 152.
    • butter and cheese, 246.
    • fireplace, 247.
    • clothing, 250.
    • priests, their devotion to the people, 587.
    • communications with Rome, 490.
    • old, the, and the new English, 491.
    • priests, their peculiar position, 586.
    • history, materials for, 39.
    • martyr, the first, 125.
    • saints, 167.
    • religious, 221.
  • Irish king sent to the Isle of Man, 225.
    • Rinuccini's account of the, 491.
    • Catholic landowners, injustice towards, 509.
    • Brigade, formation of, 574.
  • Irishmen, celebrated, of the eighteenth century, 592,
  • Iron Duke, 639.
  • Island Magee, massacre of, 481.
  • Ita, St. 169.


  • Jackson, Rev. William, his miserable death, 616.
  • James I., his reign, 463.
  • James II., his reign, 555
    • arrival in Ireland, 557.
  • Japhet, Milesians descended from, 84.
  • Jerome's, St., statement on Ireland, 74.
  • John of the Shamrocks, 434.
  • John, Prince, receives title of King of Ireland, 287
    • his visit to Ireland, 292
    • second visit to Ireland, 302
    • succeeds to the English crown, 296
    • starves a bishop to death, 301
    • letter of Innocent III. to, 295
    • death, 304.
  • Josephus, 68.
  • Judgment of a king, 103.


  • Kadlubeck, historian of Poland, 48.
  • Keating, the historian, 531.
    • on Erinn, 43n.
    • quotations from, on the division of Ireland, 60.
    • on descent from the Scythians, 68.
    • on the battle of Bealagh Mughna, 193.
    • books referred to by, 45.
    • on colour, as a distinction of rank, 89n.
    • on battle of Dundalk, 203.
    • burial-place, 532.
    • inscription in honour of, 533.
  • Kennedy, Prince of Munster, 202.
  • Kildare, Earl of, and Henry VII., 384.
    • accused of treason, 384.
    • last Catholic Earl of, 387.
    • letter of, 388.
  • Kildare, Monastery of, 132.
  • Kilian, St., 177.
  • Kincora, Brian's "Happy Family" at, 209
    • destruction of, 226.
  • Knights of the Royal Branch, 125.
  • Kunrann the poet, 187.


  • Lacy, De, made Viceroy of Ireland, 289
    • endeavours to become King of Ireland, 291
    • cruel death, 293
    • family become extinct, 311.
  • Lady physicians, 66.
  • Laeghairé, King, holds a pagan festival, 119
    • receives St. Patrick at Tara, 120
    • his oath, 129
    • his death, 129
    • his burial, 129n.
  • Lammas-day, 164.
  • Landing of the Picts, 79.
    • of Partholan, 58.
    • of Ceasair, 57.
  • Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury, 228.
  • Langton, Stephen, Archbishop of Canterbury, 301.
  • Language of ancient Erinn, 147
    • writing in pre-Christian Erinn, 148
    • Ogham writing, 150.
  • Laws, the Brehon code of, 144
    • its peculiarities, 145.
    • of the Innocents, 172.
    • of succession, 146.
    • of ancient Erinn, 144.
  • Leix, St. Patrick's visit to, 124
    • cruelties of the deputy of, 417.
  • Lewis, Sir G.C., 85n.
  • Lhind, quotations from, 95n.
  • Lia Fail, 76
    • or Stone of Destiny, 165
    • mention of, 165.
  • Life, social, previous to the English invasion, 237.
  • Limerick, siege of, by Ireton. 506
    • by William of Orange, 566
    • by Ginkell, 571.
  • Linen trade, 251, 540.
  • Literary ladies in Ireland, 374
  • Literary men of the seventeenth century, 531.
  • Livin, St., 178.
  • Londres, Henry de, made Governor of Ireland, 306
    • surnamed Scorch Villain, 306.
  • Louvain collection, 46
    • friars, 52.
  • Loyola, St. Ignatius, 120n.
  • Lucas, his life, 607.


  • Macaille, St., 131.
  • MacArt's, Cormac, Saltair. 40
    • his reign, 103
    • his death, 105.
  • Macaulay, Lays of Ancient Rome, 247n.
  • Maccallin, St., 221.
  • MacCarthy, King of Desmond, 229.
  • MacCarthy More murdered at Tralee, 357.
  • MacCullinan, Cormac, priest and king, 192
    • his reign, 193
    • his death, 193n.
  • MacCumhaill, Finn, 105
    • his courtship with the Princess Ailbhé, 105.
  • MacFirbis, quotations from, 54, 58
    • his book on pedigrees, 85
    • his pedigrees of the ancient Irish and Anglo-Norman families, 50
    • murdered, 51.
  • MacGilluire, Coarb of St. Patrick, 315.
  • MacLiag, the poet, 210n.
  • MacMurrough, Dermod, King of Leinster, 233
    • attends synod at Mellifont, 234
    • his interview with Henry II., 258
    • Henry grants him letters-patent, 259
    • his death, 266.
  • MacMurrough, Art, 367
    • his death, 370.
  • MacNally, advocate of the United Irishmen, 618.
  • Macutenius on St. Patrick's Canons, 118.
  • Maelmuire, "servant of Mary," 227n.
  • Maelruain, St., of Tallaght, 179.
  • Magna Charta, 305.
  • Magog and his colony, 68
    • his descendants, 84.
  • Magrath, Miler, the apostate, 78.
  • Mahoun, brother to Brian, 204
    • is murdered, 206.
  • Mailduf, St., 178.
  • Malachy, St., 229
    • visits Rome, 231
    • death of, 231.
  • Malachy II., 198
    • exploits against the Danes, 208
    • wins his "collar of gold," 208
    • Brian deposes, 209
    • his death, 218.
  • Manners and Customs of Ancient Greece, 141.
  • Marco Polo, 46.
  • Marisco, De, his treachery, 311
    • his death, 312.
  • Mary, Queen, 410.
  • Massacre of a prelate, priest, and friars, 402
    • of a bishop, 466
    • at Wexford-bridge, 628
    • at Cashel, 496
    • at Wexford, 503
    • of three priests, 445
    • of three Franciscans, 453
    • at Drogheda, 501
    • at Mullamast, 438
    • at Fort del Ore, 444
    • at Scullabogue House, 627.
  • Mellifont, Abbey of, 231
  • Meloughlin, King of Meath, 191.
  • Metalogicus, the, of John of Salisbury, 275n.
  • Milcho, St. Patrick's master in captivity, 116.
  • Milesian genealogies, 84, 88.
  • Milesians, landing of the, 75
    • they conquer, 77.
  • Milford Haven, 292.
  • Milidh, fleet of the sons of, entrance into Ireland, 75.
  • Mississippi Scheme, 584.
  • Mochta, St., 151.
  • Moira, Lord, exposes the cruelty of the yeomanry, 619.
  • Moling, St., 109.
  • Monastery of Kildare, St. Brigid's, 132.
    • Kilcrea, 321.
    • of Bobbio, 176.
    • of Timoleague, 321,
    • of Tallaght, 179.
    • of St. Columbkille, 293.
    • of Cluain Eidhneach, 179.
    • of Donegal, 321
      • desolation and plunder of, 189.
    • of Clonbroney, 188n.
    • of St. Columba, 230, 234.
    • of Ibrach (Ivragh), Kerry, 230.
    • of Lismore, 226.
    • of St. Kevin, 235.
    • of Dunbrody, 289.
    • of St. Peter's of Lemene, near Chambery, 381.
    • of Clonfert, 170.
    • of Mellifont, 234.
    • of Clonmacnois, 221.
    • Irrelagh (Muckross), 322.
    • Clonmel, 322.
    • Drogheda, 322.
    • Cill-Achaidh, 374.
  • Montgomery, 584.
  • Montmarisco, 237
    • becomes a monk, 289
  • Monroe, 493.
  • Monroe, Henry, 629.
  • Moore, his History, 37
    • his partiality for Malachy, 209
    • on religion, 111
    • his life, 605.
  • Morann the good, and his collar of gold, 97.
  • MSS. preserved in Trinity College, 44.
    • of ancient Irish history, 39n.
    • Celtic, preserved in Belgium, 45.
    • Continental, 45n.
    • in British Museum, 46.
    • Stowe collection of, 45n.
  • MSS., Latin, 46.
    • Loftus, 415.
    • Burgundian, 46.
    • legendary and historical, of Irish history, 39.
  • Muckross Abbey, 322.
  • Muircheartach, first Christian king of Ireland, 131.
  • Muircheartach, his circuit of Ireland, 197
    • killed by Blacaire, 197.
  • Murphy, Father, killed, 628.
  • Murrough's game of chess, 211.
  • Murtough of the Leathern Cloaks, 196.


  • Neamhnach, the well, 164.
  • Napier's, Lady, letter respecting the tenantry of Duke of Leinster, 623.
  • Nathi, King, 116.
  • National joy at the restoration of Catholic worship, 464.
  • Nemedh, arrival of, 59.
  • Nemenians, emigration of, 60, 62.
  • Nemthur, St. Patrick's birthplace, 110.
  • Nennius, 69.
  • Nesta, her beauty and infamy, 259.
  • Nestor, 48.
  • Netterville, John, Archbishop of Armagh, 318.
  • Newspapers in seventeenth century, 545.
  • Newtownbutler, engagement at, 595.
  • Nial of the Nine Hostages, 106.
  • Nial Black Knee, 194.
  • Nicholas, St., College of, 51.
  • Niebuhr, his theory of history, 82.
    • on the story of Tarpeia, 82n.
    • on learning by verse, 86.
  • Noah, genealogies from, 58.
  • Normans, their arrival in Ireland, 257.
    • their luxurious habits, 272.
    • Cambrensis' account of them, 277.
    • the, ridicule the Irish nobles, 293.
    • feuds of the, in Ireland, 300.
    • their treachery, 311.
    • Viceroys, 285.
  • Nuada of the Silver Hand, 61
    • his privy council, 64.
  • Numa Pompilius, 89.


  • O'Brien, Turlough, Monarch of Ireland, 222
    • his death, 223.
  • O'Brien, Donnell, King of Thomond, 271.
  • O'Briens, from whom descended, 84.
  • O'Clery, Michael, one of the Four Masters, 52
    • his literary labours and piety, 54
    • his first work, Trias Thaumaturgas, 52
    • rewrote the Book of Invasions, 54
    • patronized by Fearghal O'Gara, 53.
  • O'Connell, Daniel, in the House of Parliament, 647
    • obtains Catholic Emancipation, 647
    • represented Ireland, 641
    • his life, 642
    • his maiden speech, 643
    • Doneraile Conspiracy, 643.
  • O'Curry, when Moore visited, 37
    • his opinion of early Irish civilization, 104
    • his labours, 38
    • on Erinn, 48n
    • on Keating's statement of Irish descent, 68
    • on Cormac's writings, 104n
    • on the Bachall Isu, 115
    • on Brehon Laws, 145
    • on Irish saints, 178
    • on musical instruments, 250
    • on Irish martyrs, 416.
  • O'Connor, Hugh, 308.
    • Felim, 309, 313.
    • of Offaly, 339.
    • Roderic, 235.
    • expelled from Offaly, 408
      • returns to Ireland, 411.
    • Margaret, a literary lady, 374.
    • Nuala, 321
      • establishes the monastery of Franciscans at Donegal, 321
      • her death, 322.
    • Arthur, 624.
  • O'Connor Faly, Margaret, visits England, 411.
  • O'Daly, the poet, 303.
  • O'Donnell, Hugh, entertainment of, at Windsor, 387.
  • O'Donnell, Hugh Roe, his treacherous capture, 447
    • leaves Ireland, 459.
  • O'Donnell More, died at Assaroe, 313.
  • O'Donovan, Dr., quotations from, on Brehon laws, 144.
  • Odran, St., 147.
  • O'Duffy, Catholicus, 304.
  • O'Duffy, Donnell, 233.
  • O'Flaherty, his Chronology, 81.
  • Ogham writing, 149.
  • Oghma, Danann prince, invented the writing called Ogham Craove, 76.
  • Ogygia of the Greeks, 72.
  • Ogygia, account in, of ancient writings, 148n.
  • O'Hagan, the Abbot Imar, 229.
  • O'Hartigan, Kenneth, 221.
  • O'Hurly, Dr., 453.
  • Ollamh Fodhla, 89.
  • Ollamh, office and qualifications of a, 83, 86.
  • O'Loughlin, Donnell, 226.
  • O'Loughlins of Tyrone, 231.
  • O'More, Rory Oge, 437
  • O'Neill, Donough, 207
  • O'Neill, Shane, 409
    • feared by the English, 418
    • attempts to poison him, 419
    • Lord Chancellor Cusack persuades him to forget the poisoning, 420
    • he is killed treacherously, 422.
  • O'Neill, Hugh, marriage of, 450
    • his insurrection, 454
    • defeats Bagnal, 455
    • his interview with Essex, 456
    • attempts to assassinate him, 458
    • his power decreases, 461
    • plot to entrap him, 468
    • his flight and death in Rome, 469.
  • O'Neill, Sir Phelim, 480
    • marches against Monroe, 493.
  • O'Neill, Owen Roe, 480.
  • O'Neill, Hugh Boy, slain in 1283, 332.
  • O'Neill, Donnell, 198,
  • Ormonde, the Duke of. 483
    • his intrigues, 492.
  • Orpheus, first writer who mention Ireland, 71.
  • Orr, Mr., his trial and death, 620.
  • O'Toole, St. Laurence, Archbishop of Dublin, 234
    • his genealogy, 235
    • Abbot of St. Kevin's monastery, at Glendalough, 235
    • his patriotism, 267
    • his journey to France, 290
    • sent as ambassador to Henry II., 281
    • his death, 290.
  • Oirdnidhe, Hugh, the legislator, 179.


  • Palatines, the, 580.
  • Palladius, St., mission of, 109.
  • Palliums, 231.
  • Partholan, landing of, 58.
  • Partholyan, English traditions of, 71.
  • Patrick, St., his birthplace, 112
    • visits Tara, 120
    • his successful preaching, 123
    • relic of his hand, 134
    • his copy of the Gospels, 134
    • his burial-place, 133
    • devotion of his servant, 125
    • his death, 126
    • his vision, 113
    • his prayer for Ireland, 135
    • destruction of the idols, 121
    • his Hymn, 120
    • his captivity, 113.
  • Peep-o'-Day Boys and Defenders, 613.
  • Pelasgian remains, 158.
  • Pembroke, Earl of, plots against, 311.
  • Penal Laws, enactment of, 576.
  • Perrot, Sir John, 417.
  • Petrie, Dr., quotations from, on Brehon laws, 115.
  • Petty, Sir William, 541.
  • Philosophical Society, the Dublin, 546.
  • Phoenician colonization of Spain, 70
    • circumnavigation of Africa, 69.
  • Physicians, establishment of their college in Dublin, 543
  • Picts, landing of the, 79.
  • Pitt, William, 613.
  • Plantation of Connaught, 510
    • of Ulster, 469.
  • Plowden's account of the atrocities of the military, 602.
  • Plunkett, Dr., his trial and execution, 528.
  • Plunkett, Lord, in parliament, 640.
  • Poyning's Parliament, 379
    • law, and its effects, 382.
  • Presentation Order, 593n.
  • Priests, cruel massacre of, 496
    • their efforts to save Protestants, 483.
  • Protestant Church, state of, 425.


  • Quipus used as a register by the Indians, 150.


  • Raith Beóthaigh (Rath Beagh), an ancient burial-place, 78.
  • Raleigh, Sir Walter, 439.
  • Rath at Leighlin, 200
    • of the Synods, 165.
  • Reformation, attempts to introduce the, 415.
  • Reformed clergy, preaching of, 405.
  • Religious houses and their founders, 316.
  • Remonstrance to the Holy See, 341.
  • Reports on the state of Ireland, 648
  • Richard I., accession of, 294.
  • Richard II., visits Ireland, 365.
  • Rinuccini, 489n
    • lands at Kenmare, 490
    • reception in Kilkenny, 491
    • returns to Italy, 497.
  • Rock of Cashel, 193.
  • Rodanus, St., 162.
  • Romantic Tales, 91.
  • Rose Tavern, 544.
  • Rotundo built, 638.
  • Round Tower controversy, 153.
  • Rowan, A. Hamilton, 615
  • Rufus, William, boast of, 257.


  • Sacramental test, 579.
  • Saltair of Temair, 41.
    • na-Rann, 41.
    • of Cashel, 44.
    • of Cormac, 41.
  • San José, arrival of, 443.
  • Saviour's, St., Dublin, 318.
  • Schomberg's camp, disease in, 560.
  • Scots, 69.
  • Scraball, 164.
  • Scythian colonists, 68
    • Irish claim descent from, 65.
  • Seanchaidhé, poet, 83n.
  • Seanchus Mor, language of, 145
    • translator of, 145.
  • Sedulus, St., 178.
  • Segetius, priest, 115.
  • Senchan Torpéist, 40.
  • Severe winters and pestilences in Ireland, 223.
  • Sheehy, Father Nicholas, judicial murder of, 589.
  • Sheridan, his life, 608.
  • Shrines of the three saints, 133.
  • Sidney's official account of Ireland, 423
    • his interview with Granuaile, 434.
  • Silken Thomas, his rebellion, 391
    • his execution, 392.
  • Silver shields, 89.
  • Simnel crowned in Dublin, 380.
  • Simon, Rabbi, 68.
  • Sitric arrival of, 195
    • treachery of, 201.
  • Smith, Adam, on Ireland, 603.
  • Smithfield, origin of the name, 241n.
  • South Sea Bubble, 581.
  • Spenser's Castle, 423
    • grandson, 513
    • description of Irish misery, 439.
  • Sreng, warrior, 62.
  • Statements in our annals confirmed by a Jewish writer, 68.
  • Statute of Kilkenny and its effects, 359.
  • Stierman, 48.
  • Sterne, Dr., 544.
  • Strafford, Earl of, 77.
  • Strongbow, Earl of Clare, arrives in Ireland, 263
    • genealogy, 263
    • marriage of, and Eva, 264
    • proclaims himself king of Leinster, 266
    • returns to England. 268
    • death of, 282
    • his seal, 284.
  • Succession, law of, 146.
  • Superstitions, Irish, 142.
  • Swan, Major, 624.
  • Swift, Dean, 581
    • his writings, 581
    • his life, 607.
  • Swords and chariots of ancient Ireland, 167.


  • Tacitus, 95.
  • Táin bó Chuailgné, the expedition of, 92
    • the story of, 93.
  • Talbot, Archbishop, 525.
  • Tanaiste, 147.
  • Tandy, Napper, 612.
  • Tara, account of ancient, 163
    • site of, 41
    • cursing of, 162.
  • Taverns and coffee-houses, 544.
  • Theatre, the first, in Dublin, 547.
  • Thomas, St., of Canterbury, 266.
  • Thompson, Charles, Secretary of Congress, 601.
  • Threnodia Hiberno-Catholica, 511.
  • Tighernach's Annals, 49
    • uses the dominical letter, 49
    • mentions the lunar cycle, 49
    • quotes historical writers, 49
    • his home, 48.
  • Tighearnmas, 88.
  • Timoleague, Monastery of, 321.
  • Tithes introduced into Ireland, 232.
  • Tom the Devil, 622.
  • Tone, Theobald Wolfe, 614.
  • Tradition, its use in history, 40.
  • Trias Thaumaturgas, 52.
  • Trinity College, foundation of, 462.
  • Tuatha Dé Dananns, fifth taking of Ireland by, 61
    • their skill as artificers, 61
    • battles of, 62, 75
    • dynasty passed away, 76.
  • Tuathal, reign of, 98.
  • Tuite, Richard (the great baron), 333.
  • Turgesius the Dane, 189.
  • Tussach, St, 126.


  • Ugainé Mor, reign of, 90.
  • Ultan, St., 171.
  • Union, the, 632.
  • United Irishmen, the, 618.
  • Usher, Archbishop, 534
    • his indifference about orders, 536
    • on St. Patrick's Canons, 117
    • as an historian, 534.
  • Usher's Island, 318n.


  • Veto, the, 643.
  • Victorious, 113n.
  • Vinegar Hill, the battle of, 627.
  • Volunteers, the, 591.
  • Virgilius, St., 178.
  • Vivian, Cardinal, 286
    • entombs the relics of the three saints anew, 294.


  • Warbeck's plot, 381.
  • Ware, 415.
  • Ward, Father, 52.
  • Waterford rugs, 539.
  • Wellesley, Chief Secretary, 640.
  • Wesley, John, his remark about Moira House, 318n.
  • Wheat planted early, 243.
  • White and Black Gentiles, 191.
  • Whiteboys, the, 584.
  • Wilde, Sir W., 79n.
  • Wives purchased in Erinn, 43
    • exchanged, 229.
  • Words and Places, 58n.
  • Wood's halfpence, 581.
  • Wren, veneration for the, 140.


  • Yeomanry, fearful cruelties of the, 630.
  • York, house of, 371
    • Duke of, made Viceroy, 375.
  • Yorkists, popularity in Ireland, 376.
    • insurrection of the, 378.
  • Youghal, foundation of Convent of, 318
    • College of, 378
    • burned down, 443.
  • Young's remedy for Irish disaffection, 585.


The Rev. U. Burke, of St. Jarlath's College, Tuam, has a
note on this subject, in a work which he is at this moment passing
through the press, and which he kindly permits me to publish. He says:
"This book [the "Illustrated History of Ireland"] ought to be in the
hands of every young student and of every young Irish maiden attending
the convent schools. Oh, for ten thousand Irish ladies knowing the
history of Ireland! How few know anything of it! The present volume, by
Sister Francis Clare, is an atoning sacrifice for this sin of neglect."

I am aware that the price of the "Illustrated History of Ireland," even
in its present form, although it is offered at a sacrifice which no
bookseller would make, is an obstacle to its extensive use as a school
history. We purpose, however, before long, to publish a history for the
use of schools, at a very low price, and yet of a size to admit of
sufficient expansion for the purpose. Our countrymen must, however,
remember that only a very large number of orders can enable the work to
be published as cheaply as it should be. It would save immense trouble
and expense, if priests, managers of schools, and the heads of colleges,
would send orders for a certain number of copies at once. If every
priest, convent, and college, ordered twelve copies for their schools,
the work could be put in hands immediately.

Work.Lectures on the MS. Materials of Ancient Irish
. This work was published at the sole cost of the Catholic
University of Ireland, and will be an eternal monument of their
patriotism and devotion to literature. A chair of Irish History and
Archæology was also founded at the very commencement of the University;
and yet the "Queen's Colleges" are discarding this study, while an
English professor in Oxford is warmly advocating its promotion. Is the
value of a chair to be estimated by the number of pupils who surround
it, or by the contributions to science of the professor who holds it?

Leinster.—Book of Leinster, H.2.18, T.C.D. See O'Curry,
p. 8.

Ballymote.—Library R.I.A., at fol. 145, a.a.

Lecan.—Trinity College, Dublin, classed H.2.16.

Uachongbhail.—O'Curry's MS. Materials, p. 11.

Same.—Ibid. p. 12. The Psalms derived their name from
the musical instrument to which they were sung. This was called in
Hebrew nebel. It obtained the name from its resemblance to a bottle or
flagon. Psaltery is the Greek translation, and hence the name psalm.

Devastated.—This was probably written in the year 1001,
when Brian Boroimhé had deposed Malachy.

Fené-men.—The farmers, who were not Fenians then
certainly, for "Cormac was a righteous judge of the Agraria Lex of the

Erinn.—Keating says: "We will set down here the
branching off of the races of Magog, according to the Book of Invasions
(of Ireland), which was called the Cin of Drom Snechta; and it was
before the coming of Patrick to Ireland the author of that book
existed."—See Keating, page 109, in O'Connor's translation. It is most
unfortunate that this devoted priest and ardent lover of his country did
not bring the critical acumen to his work which would have made its
veracity unquestionable. He tells us that it is "the business of his
history to be particular," and speaks of having "faithfully collected
and transcribed." But until recent investigations manifested the real
antiquity and value of the MS. Materials of Ancient Irish History, his
work was looked on as a mere collection of legends. The quotation at
present under consideration is a case in point. He must have had a copy
of the Cin of Drom Snechta in his possession, and he must have known who
was the author of the original, as he states so distinctly the time of
its compilation. Keating's accuracy in matters of fact and
transcription, however, is daily becoming more apparent. This statement
might have been considered a mere conjecture of his own, had not Mr.
O'Curry discovered the name of the author in a partially effaced
memorandum in the Book of Leinster, which he reads thus: "[Ernín, son
of] Duach [that is], son of the King of Connacht, an Ollamh, and a
prophet, and a professor in history, and a professor in wisdom: it was
he that collected the Genealogies and Histories of the men of Erinn in
one book, that is, the Cin Droma Snechta." Duach was the son of Brian,
son of the monarch Eochaidh, who died A.D. 305.

Besides.—O'Curry, page 16.

Sages.—M. Nigra, the Italian Ambassador at Paris, is at
this moment engaged in publishing continental MSS.

Vellum.—The use of vellum is an indication that the
MSS. must be of some antiquity. The word "paper" is derived from papyrus, the most ancient material for writing, if we except the rocks
used for runes, or the wood for oghams. Papyrus, the pith of a reed, was
used until the discovery of parchment, about 190 B.C. A MS. of the Antiquities of Josephus on papyrus, was among the treasures seized by
Buonaparte in Italy.

Acquainted.—O'Curry's MS. Materials, page 24.

Collection.-A recent writer in the Cornhill says that
Lord Ashburnham refuses access to this collection, now in his
possession, fearing that its contents may be depreciated so as to lessen
its value at a future sale. We should hope this statement can scarcely
be accurate. Unhappily, it is at least certain that access to the MSS.
is denied, from whatever motive.

Erinn.—O'Curry, page 57. It has also been remarked,
that there is no nation in possession of such ancient chronicles written
in what is still the language of its people.

Years.—See O'Curry, passim.

Erinn.—Eire is the correct form for the nominative.
Erinn is the genitive, but too long in use to admit of alteration. The
ordinary name of Ireland, in the oldest Irish MSS., is (h)Erin, gen.
(h)Erenn, dat. (h)Erinn; but the initial h is often omitted. See Max
Müller's Lectures for an interesting note on this subject, to which we
shall again refer.

Poets.—The Book of Lecain was written in 1416, by an
ancestor of Mac Firbis. Usher had it for some time in his possession;
James II. carried it to Paris, and deposited it in the Irish College in
the presence of a notary and witnesses. In 1787, the Chevalier O'Reilly
procured its restoration to Ireland; and it passed eventually from
Vallancey to the Royal Irish Academy, where it is now carefully

Murdered.—The circumstances of the murder are unhappily
characteristic of the times. The Celtic race was under the ban of penal
laws for adherence to the faith of their fathers. The murderer was free.
As the old historian travelled to Dublin, he rested at a shop in
Dunflin. A young man came in and took liberties with the young woman who
had care of the shop. She tried to check him, by saying that he would be
seen by the gentleman in the next room. In a moment he seized a knife
from the counter, and plunged it into the breast of Mac Firbis. There
was no "justice for Ireland" then, and, of course, the miscreant escaped
the punishment he too well deserved.

Lost.—He was also employed by Sir James Ware to
translate for him, and appears to have resided in his house in
Castle-street, Dublin, just before his death.

Betaghs.—Poems, by D.F. Mac Carthy.

Noah.—This is a clear argument. The names of
pre-Noahacian patriarchs must have been preserved by tradition, with
their date of succession and history. Why should not other genealogies
have been preserved in a similar manner, and even the names of
transmitted to posterity?

Laws.—MacFirbis. Apud O'Curry, p. 219.

Hibernia.—Chronicum Scotorum, p. 3.

Tradition.—O'Curry, p. 13.

Names.—Four Masters, O'Donovan, p. 3.

Abraham.—Chronicum Scotorum, p. 5.

Years.—Four Masters, p. 5.

Inver.—Inver and A[=b] er have been used as test
words in discriminating between the Gaedhilic and Cymric Celts. The
etymology and meaning is the same—a meeting of waters. Inver, the Erse
and Gaedhilic form, is common in Ireland, and in those parts of Scotland
where the Gael encroached on the Cymry. See Words and Places, p. 259,
for interesting observations on this subject.

Year.—Annals, p. 7.

Ireland.—Ib. p. 9.

Annals.—Ib. I. p. 9.

World.—See Conell MacGeoghegan's Translation of the
Annals of Clonmacnois, quoted by O'Donovan, p. 11.

Maol.—The Teutonic languages afford no explanation of
the name of Britain, though it is inhabited by a Teutonic race. It is
probable, therefore, that they adopted an ethnic appellation of the
former inhabitants. This may have been patronymic, or, perhaps, a Celtic
prefix with the Euskarian suffix etan, a district or country. See Words and Places, p. 60.

Ulster.—Neither the Annals nor the Chronicum give these
divisions; the above is from the Annals of Clonmacnois. There is a poem
in the Book of Lecain, at folio 277, b., by MacLiag, on the Firbolg
colonies, which is quoted as having been taken from their own account of
themselves; and another on the same subject at 278, a.

Hand.—Four Masters, p. 17.

Reliance.—O'Curry, p. 243.

Spears.—O'Curry, p. 245.

Eye.—There is a curious note by Dr. O'Donovan (Annals,
p. 18) about this Balor. The tradition of his deeds and enchantments is
still preserved in Tory Island, one of the many evidences of the value
of tradition, and of the many proofs that it usually overlies a strata
of facts.

Country.—We find the following passages in a work
purporting to be a history of Ireland, recently published: "It would be
throwing away time to examine critically fables like those contained
in the present and following chapter." The subjects of those chapters
are the colonization of Partholan, of the Nemedians, Fomorians, Tuatha
Dé Dananns, and Milesians, the building of the palace of Emania, the
reign of Cairbré, Tuathal, and last, not least, the death of Dathi. And
these are "fables"! The writer then calmly informs us that the period at
which they were "invented, extended probably from the tenth to the
twelfth century." Certainly, the "inventors" were men of no ordinary
talent, and deserve some commendation for their inventive faculties. But
on this subject we shall say more hereafter. At last the writer arrives
at the "first ages of Christianity." We hoped that here at least he
might have granted us a history; but he writes: "The history of early
Christianity in Ireland is obscure and doubtful, precisely in proportion
as it is unusually copious. If legends enter largely into the civil
history of the country, they found their way tenfold into the history of
the Church, because there the tendency to believe in them was much
greater, as well as the inducement to invent and adopt them." The
"inventors" of the pre-Christian history of Ireland, who accomplished
their task "from the tenth to the twelfth century," are certainly
complimented at the expense of the saints who Christianized Ireland.
This writer seems to doubt the existence of St. Patrick, and has "many
doubts" as to the authenticity of the life of St. Columba. We should not
have noticed this work had we not reason to know that it has circulated
largely amongst the middle and lower classes, who may be grievously
misled by its very insidious statements. It is obviously written for the
sake of making a book to sell; and the writer has the honesty to say
plainly, that he merely gives the early history of Ireland, pagan and
Christian, because he could not well write a history of Ireland and omit
this portion of it!

Pillars.—The monuments ascribed to the Tuatha Dé
Dananns are principally situated in Meath, at Drogheda, Dowlet, Knowth,
and New Grange. There are others at Cnoc-Ainè and Cnoc-Gréinè, co.
Limerick, and on the Pap Mountains, co. Kerry.

Josephus.—Con. Apionem, lib. i.

Snechta.—O'Curry, p. 14.

Work—See ante, p. 43.

Writes.—Josephus, lib. i. c. 6. Most of the authorities
in this chapter are taken from the Essay on the ancient history,
religion, learning, arts, and government of Ireland, by the late W.
D'Alton. The Essay obtained a prize of £80 and the Cunningham Gold Medal
from the Royal Irish Academy. It is published in volume xvi. of the
Transactions, and is a repertory of learning of immense value to the
student of Irish history.

Sea.—Lib. Zoar, p. 87, as cited by Vallancey, and
Parson's Defence, &c., p. 205.

Sea.—Herodotus, l. vii. c. 89.

Me.—"Sic mihi peritissimi Scotorum nunciaverunt." The
reader will remember that the Irish were called Scots, although the
appellative of Ierins or Ierne continued to be given to the country from
the days of Orpheus to those of Claudius. By Roman writers Ireland was
more usually termed Hibernia. Juvenal calls it Juverna.

Writers.—The circumnavigation of Africa by a Phoenician
ship, in the reign of Neco, about 610 B.C., is credited by Humboldt,
Rennell, Heeren, Grote, and Rawlinson. Of their voyages to Cornwall for
tin there is no question, and it is more than probable they sailed to
the Baltic for amber. It has been even supposed that they anticipated
Columbus in the discovery of America. Niebuhr connects the primitive
astronomy of Europe with that of America, and, therefore, must suppose
the latter country to have been discovered.—Hist. of Rome, vol. i. p.
281. This, however, is very vague ground of conjecture; the tide of
knowledge, as well as emigration, was more probably eastward.

Procopius.—Hist. Gen. d'Espagne, vol. i.c.l. p.4.

Chief.—De Antiq. et Orig. Cantab. See D'Alton's Essay, p. 24, for other authorities.

Poem.—There has been question of the author, but none
as to the authenticity and the probable date of compilation.

Ogygia.—Camden writes thus: "Nor can any one conceive
why they should call it Ogygia, unless, perhaps, from its antiquity; for
the Greeks called nothing Ogygia unless what was extremely ancient."

Fish.—And it still continues to be a national article
of consumption and export. In a recent debate on the "Irish question,"
an honorable member observes, that he regrets to say "fish" is the only
thing which appears to be flourishing in Ireland. We fear, however, from
the report of the Select Committee of the House of Commons on the
question of Irish sea-coast fisheries, that the poor fishermen are not
prospering as well as the fish. Mr. Hart stated: "Fish was as plenty as
ever; but numbers of the fishermen had died during the famine, others
emigrated, and many of those who remained were unable, from want of
means, to follow the pursuit." And yet these men are honest; for it has
been declared before the same committee, that they have scrupulously
repaid the loans which were given them formerly; and they are willing to
work, for when they can get boats and nets, they do work. These are
facts. Shakspeare has said that facts are "stubborn things;" they are,
certainly, sometimes very unpleasant things. Yet, we are told, the Irish
have no real grievances. Of course, starvation from want of work is not
a grievance!

Within the few months which have elapsed since the publication of the
first edition of this History and the present moment, when I am engaged
in preparing a second edition, a fact has occurred within my own
personal knowledge relative to this very subject, and of too great
importance to the history of Ireland in the present day to be omitted. A
shoal of sprats arrived in the bay of —— and the poor people crowded
to the shore to witness the arrival and, alas! the departure of the
finny tribe. All their nets had been broken or sold in the famine year;
they had, therefore, no means of securing what would have been a
valuable addition to their poor fare. The wealthy, whose tables are
furnished daily with every luxury, can have but little idea how bitter
such privations are to the poor. Had there been a resident landlord in
the place, to interest himself in the welfare of his tenants, a few
pounds would have procured all that was necessary, and the people,
always grateful for kindness, would long have remembered the boon and
the bestower of it.

Commerce.—"Phoenices a vetustissimis inde temporibus
frequenter crebras mercaturæ gratiâ navigationes instituerunt."—Diod.
Sic. vers. Wesseling, t.i.

Confessio.—Dr. O'Donovan states, in an article in the Ulster Archæological Journal, vol. viii. p. 249, that he had a letter
from the late Dr. Prichard, who stated that it was his belief the
ancient Irish were not anthropophagi. He adds: "Whatever they may have
been when their island was called Insula Sacra, there are no people in
Europe who are more squeamish in the use of meats than the modern Irish
peasantry, for they have a horror of every kind of carrion;" albeit he
is obliged to confess that, though they abuse the French for eating
frogs, and the English for eating rooks, there is evidence to prove that
horseflesh was eaten in Ireland, even in the reign of Queen Elizabeth.

Scota.—The grave is still pointed out in the valley of
Gleann Scoithin, county Kerry.

Taillten.—Now Telltown, county Meath.

Amhergen.—Annals of the Four Masters, vol. i. p. 25.

Also.—This tale bears a simple and obvious
interpretation. The druids were the most learned and experienced in
physical science of their respective nations; hence the advice they gave
appeared magical to those who were less instructed.

Géisill.—The scene of the battle was at a place called Tochar eter dhá mhagh, or "the causeway between two plains," and on
the bank of the river Bri Damh, which runs through the town of
Tullamore. The name of the battle-field is still preserved in the name
of the townland of Ballintogher, in the parish and barony of Géisill.
At the time of the composition of the ancient topographical tract called
the Dinnseanchus, the mounds and graves of the slain were still to be
seen.—See O'Curry, page 449. The author of this tract, Amergin Mac
Amalgaidh, wrote about the sixth century. A copy of his work is
preserved in the Book of Ballymote, which was compiled in the year 1391.
There is certainly evidence enough to prove the fact of the mélee, and
that this was not a "legend invented from the tenth to the twelfth
centuries." It is almost amusing to hear the criticisms of persons
utterly ignorant of our literature, however well-educated in other
respects. If the treasures of ancient history which exist in Irish MSS.
existed in Sanscrit, or even in Greek or Latin, we should find scholars
devoting their lives and best intellectual energies to understand and
proclaim their value and importance, and warmly defending them against
all impugners of their authenticity.

Island.—The axe figured above is a remarkable weapon.
The copy is taken, by permission, from the collection of the Royal Irish
Academy. Sir W. Wilde describes the original thus in the Catalogue: "It
is 3-1/8 inches in its longest diameter, and at its thickest part
measures about half-an-inch. It has been chipped all over with great
care, and has a sharp edge all round. This peculiar style of tool or
weapon reached perfection in this specimen, which, whether used as a
knife, arrow, spike, or axe, was an implement of singular beauty of
design, and exhibits great skill in the manufacture."

Fotharta.—Now the barony of Forth, in Wexford.

Bede.—Ecclesiastical History, Bohn's edition, p. 6.

Honey.—Honey was an important edible to the ancients,
and, therefore, likely to obtain special mention. Keating impugns the
veracity of Solinus, who stated that there were no bees in Ireland, on
the authority of Camden, who says: "Such is the quantity of bees, that
they are found not only in hives, but even in the trunks of trees, and
in holes in the ground." There is a curious legend anent the same useful
insect, that may interest apiarians as well as hagiologists. It is said
in the life of St. David, that when Modomnoc (or Dominic) was with St.
David at Menevia, in Wales, he was charged with the care of the
beehives, and that the bees became so attached to him that they followed
him to Ireland. However, the Rule of St. Albans, who lived in the time
of St. Patrick (in the early part of the fifth century), may be quoted
to prove that bees existed in Ireland at an earlier period, although the
saint may have been so devoted to his favourites as to have brought a
special colony by miracle or otherwise to Ireland. The Rule of St. Alban
says: "When they [the monks] sit down at table, let them be brought
[served] beets or roots, washed with water, in clean baskets, also
apples, beer, and honey from the hive." Certainly, habits of regularity
and cleanliness are here plainly indicated as well as the existence of
the bee.

Fish.—It is to be presumed that fish are destined to
prosper in Hibernia: of the ancient deer, more hereafter. The goats
still nourish also, as visitors to Killarney can testify; though they
will probably soon be relics of the past, as the goatherds are
emigrating to more prosperous regions at a rapid rate.

Monarchs.—See Bunsen's Egypt, passim.

Writers.—The first ten books of Livy are extant, and
bring Roman history to the consulship of Julius Maximus Gurges and
Junius Brutus Scoene, in 292 B.C. Dionysius published his history seven
years before Christ. Five of Plutarch's Lives fall within the period
before the war with Pyrrhus. There are many sources besides those of the
works of historians from which general information is obtained.

Niebuhr.—"Genuine or oral tradition has kept the story
of Tarpeia for five-and-twenty hundred years in the mouths of the
common people, who for many centuries have been total strangers to the
names of Cloelia and Cornelia."—Hist. vol. i. p. 230.

Event.—Credibility of Early Roman History, vol. i. p.

Libri lintei.—Registers written on linen, mentioned by
Livy, under the year 444 B.C.

Nail.—Livy quotes Cincius for the fact that a series of
nails were extant in the temple of Hostia, at Volsinii, as a register of
successive years. Quite as primitive an arrangement as the North
American quipus.

Seanchaidhé (pronounced "shanachy").—It means, in this
case, strictly a historian; but the ancient historian was also a bard or

Privileges.—We can scarcely help requesting the special
attention of the reader to these well-authenticated facts. A nation
which had so high an appreciation of its annals, must have been many
degrees removed from barbarism for centuries.

Before.—O'Curry, p. 240.

Before.—This, of course, opens up the question as to
whether the Irish Celts had a written literature before the arrival of
St. Patrick. The subject will be fully entertained later on.

Genealogies.-There is a "distinction and a difference"
between a genealogy and a pedigree. A genealogy embraces the descent of
a family, and its relation to all the other families that descended from
the same remote parent stock, and took a distinct tribe-name, as the
Dalcassians. A pedigree traces up the line of descent to the individual
from whom the name was derived.

Events.—Arnold mentions "the family traditions and
funeral orations out of which the oldest annalists [of Roman history] compiled their narratives." vol. i. p. 371. Sir G.C. Lewis, however,
thinks that the composition of national annals would precede the
composition of any private history; but he adds that he judges from the
"example of modern times." With all respect to such an authority, it
seems rather an unphilosophical conclusion. Family pedigrees would
depend on family pride, in which the Romans were by no means deficient;
and on political considerations, which were all-important to the Irish

Tales.—O'Curry, p. 241.

Verse.—See Niebuhr, Hist. vol i. pp. 254-261. Arnold
has adopted his theory, and Macaulay has acted on it. But the Roman
poems were merely recited at public entertainments, and were by no means
a national arrangement for the preservation of history, such as existed
anciently in Ireland. These verses were sung by boys more patrum (Od.
iv. 15), for the entertainment of guests. Ennius, who composed his Annales in hexameter verse, introducing, for the first time, the Greek
metre into Roman literature, mentions the verses which the Fauns, or
religious poets, used to chant. Scaliger thinks that the Fauns were a
class of men who exercised in Latium, at a very remote period, the same
functions as the Magians in Persia and the Bards in Gaul. Niebuhr
supposes that the entire history of the Roman, kings was formed from
poems into a prose narrative.

Samhain.—Now All Hallows Eve. The peasantry still use
the pagan name. It is a compound word, signifying "summer" and "end."

Breifné.—In the present county Cavan. We shall refer
again to this subject, when mentioning St. Patrick's destruction of the

Colours.—Keating says that a slave was permitted only
one colour, a peasant two, a soldier three, a public victualler five.
The Ollamh ranked, with royalty, and was permitted six—another of the
many proofs of extraordinary veneration for learning in pre-Christian
Erinn. The Four Masters, however, ascribe the origin of this distinction
to Eochaidh Eadghadhach. It is supposed that this is the origin of the
Scotch plaid. The ancient Britons dyed their bodies blue. The Cymric
Celts were famous for their colours.

Emania.—The legend of the building of this palace will
be given in a future chapter.

France.—It is said that foreigners who came with him
from Gaul were armed with broad-headed lances (called in Irish laighne), whence the province of Leinster has derived its name.
Another derivation of the name, from coige, a fifth part, is
attributed to the Firbolgs.

Diction.-This tract contains a description of arms and
ornaments which might well pass for a poetic flight of fancy, had we not
articles of such exquisite workmanship in the Royal Irish Academy, which
prove incontrovertibly the skill of the ancient artists of Erinn. This
is the description of a champion's attire:—"A red and white cloak
flutters about him; a golden brooch in that cloak, at his breast; a
shirt of white, kingly linen, with gold embroidery at his skin; a white
shield, with gold fastenings at his shoulder; a gold-hilted long sword
at his left side; a long, sharp, dark green spear, together with a
short, sharp spear, with a rich band and carved silver rivets in his
hand."—O'Curry, p. 38. We give an illustration on previous page of a
flint weapon of a ruder kind.

Brains.—My friend, Denis Florence MacCarthy, Esq.,
M.R.I.A., our poet par excellence, is occupied at this moment in
versifying some portions of this romantic story. I believe he has some
intention of publishing the work in America, as American publishers are
urgent in their applications to him for a complete and uniform edition
of his poems, including his exquisite translations from the dramatic and
ballad literature of Spain. We hope Irish publishers and the Irish
people will not disgrace their country by allowing such a work to be
published abroad. We are too often and too justly accused of deficiency
in cultivated taste, which unfortunately makes trashy poems, and verbose
and weakly-written prose, more acceptable to the majority than works
produced by highly-educated minds. Irishmen are by no means inferior to
Englishmen in natural gifts, yet, in many instances, unquestionably they
have not or do not cultivate the same taste for reading, and have not
the same appreciation of works of a higher class than the lightest
literature. Much of the fault, no doubt, lies in the present system of
education: however, as some of the professors in our schools and
colleges appear to be aware of the deficiency, we may hope for better

Lands.—Lhuid asserts that the names of the principal
commanders in Gaul and Britain who opposed Cæsar, are Irish Latinized.

Received.—"They are said to have fled into Ireland,
some for the sake of ease and quietness, others to keep their eyes
untainted by Roman insolence."—See Harris' Ware. The Brigantes of
Waterford, Tipperary, and Kilkenny, are supposed to have been emigrants,
and to have come from the colony of that name in Yorkshire.

Fear.—"In spem magis quam ob formidinem."

Merchants.—"Melius aditus portusque per commercia et
negotiatores cognitis."

Island.—Vita Julii Agric. c. 24.

Year.—Hist. Rer. Angl. lib. ii. c. 26.

Aitheach Tuatha.—The word means rentpayers, or
rentpaying tribes or people. It is probably used as a term of reproach,
and in contradiction to the free men. It has been said that this people
were the remnants of the inhabitants of Ireland before the Milesians
colonized it. Mr. O'Curry denies this statement, and maintains that they
were Milesians, but of the lower classes, who had been cruelly oppressed
by the magnates of the land.

State.—"Evil was the state of Ireland during his reign:
fruitless the corn, for there used to be but one grain on the stalk;
fruitless her rivers; milkless her cattle; plentiless her fruit, for
there used to be but one acorn on the oak."—Four Masters, p. 97.

Morann.—Morann was the inventor of the famous "collar
of gold." The new monarch appointed him his chief Brehon or judge, and
it is said that this collar closed round the necks of those who were
guilty, but expanded to the ground when the wearer was innocent. This
collar or chain is mentioned in several of the commentaries on the
Brehon Laws, as one of the ordeals of the ancient Irish. The Four
Masters style him "the very intelligent Morann."

Woods.—Four Masters, p. 97.

Magh Bolg.—Now Moybolgue, a parish in the county

Teachtmar, i.e., the legitimate, Four Masters, p.
99.—The history of the revolt of the Attacotti is contained in one of
the ancient tracts called Histories. It is termed "The Origin of the
Boromean Tribute." There is a copy of this most valuable work in the
Book of Leinster, which, it will be remembered, was compiled in the
twelfth century. The details which follow above concerning the Boromean
Tribute, are taken from the same source.

Polished.—Keating, p. 264.

Roads.—Those roads were Slighe Asail, Slighe
Midhluachra, Slighe Cualann, Slighe Dala, and Slighe Môr. Slighe Môr was
the Eiscir Riada, and division line of Erinn into two parts, between
Conn and Eóghan Môr. These five roads led to the fort of Teamair (Tara),
and it is said that they were "discovered" on the birthnight of the
former monarch. We shall refer to the subject again in a chapter on the
civilization of the early Irish. There is no doubt of the existence of
these roads, and this fact, combined with the care with which they were
kept, is significant.

Magh Lena.—The present parish of Moylana, or Kilbride,
Tullamore, King's county.

Reuda.—Bede, Eccl. Hist. p. 7.

Lance.—O'Curry, p. 45. This quotation is translated by
Mr. O'Curry, and is taken from the Book of Ballymote. This book,
however, quotes it from the Uachongbhail, a much older authority.

Write.—Professor O'Curry well observes, that "such a
man could scarcely have carried out the numerous provisions of his
comprehensive enactments without some written medium. And it is no
unwarrantable presumption to suppose, that, either by his own hand, or,
at least, in his own time, by his command, his laws were committed to
writing; and when we possess very ancient testimony to this effect, I
can see no reason for rejecting it, or for casting a doubt upon the
statement."—MS. Materials, p. 47. Mr. Petrie writes, if possible,
more strongly. He says: "It is difficult, if not impossible, to conceive
how the minute and apparently accurate accounts found in the various
MSS. of the names and localities of the Attacottic tribes of Ireland in
the first century, could have been preserved, without coming to the
conclusion that they had been preserved in writing in some
work."—Essay on Tara Hill, p. 46. Elsewhere, however, he speaks more

Land.—Four Masters, p. 117.

Collas.—They were sons of Eochaidh Domlen, who made
themselves famous by their warlike exploits, and infamous by their
destruction of the palace of Emania.

Groans.—Bede, Eccl. Hist. c. 12.

Sources.—The Abbé M'Geoghegan says that there is a
very ancient registry in the archives of the house of Sales, which
mentions that the King of Ireland remained some time in the Castle of
Sales. See his History, p. 94.

Christ.—"Ad Scotos in Christum credentes ordinatur a
papa Cælestino Palladius et primus episcopus mittitur."—Vet. Lat.
Scrip. Chron. Roncallius
, Padua, 1787.

Wicklow.—Probably on the spot where the town of
Wicklow now stands. It was then called the region of Hy-Garchon. It is
also designated Fortreatha Laighen by the Scholiast on Fiacc's Hymn.
The district, probably, received this name from the family of Eoichaidh
Finn Fothart
, a brother of Conn of the Hundred Battles.

Armagh—Fol. 16, a.a.

Patricius.—This name was but an indication of rank. In
the later years of the Roman Empire, Gibbon says, "the meanest subjects
of the Roman Empire [5th century] assumed the illustrious name of
Patricius."—Decline and Fall, vol. viii. p. 300. Hence the confusion
that arose amongst Celtic hagiographers, and the interchanging of the
acts of several saints who bore the same name.

Deacon.—This was an important office in the early
Roman Church.

Heresy.—The Pelagian.

Followed him.—The Four Masters imply, however, that
they remained in Ireland. They also name the three wooden churches which
he erected. Celafine, which has not been identified; Teach-na-Romhan,
House of the Romans, probably Tigroni; and Domhnach-Arta, probably the
present Dunard.—Annals, p. 129.

Nemthur.—The n is merely a prefix; it should read

Celestine.—See the Scholiast on Fiacc's Hymn.

Preserved.—It is much to be regretted that almost
every circumstance in the life of St. Patrick has been made a field for
polemics. Dr. Todd, of whom one might have hoped better things, has
almost destroyed the interest of his otherwise valuable work by this
fault. He cannot allow that St. Patrick's mother was a relative of St.
Martin of Tours, obviously because St. Martin's Catholicity is
incontrovertible. He wastes pages in a vain attempt to disprove St.
Patrick's Roman mission, for similar reasons; and he cannot even admit
that the Irish received the faith as a nation, all despite the clearest
evidence; yet so strong is the power of prejudice, that he accepts far
less proof for other questions.

Victoricus.—There were two saints, either of whom
might have been the mysterious visitant who invited St. Patrick to
Ireland. St. Victoricus was the great missionary of the Morini, at the
end of the fourth century. There was also a St. Victoricus who suffered
martyrdom at Amiens, A.D. 286. Those do not believe that the saints were
and are favoured with supernatural communications, and whose honesty
compels them to admit the genuineness of such documents as the
Confession of St. Patrick, are put to sad straits to explain away what
he writes.

Lerins.—See Monks of the West, v. i. p. 463. It was
then styled insula beata.

St. Germain.—St. Fiacc, who, it will be remembered,
was contemporary with St. Patrick, write thus in his Hymn:

"The angel, Victor, sent Patrick over the Alps;
Admirable was his journey—
Until he took his abode with Germanus,
Far away in the south of Letha.
In the isles of the Tyrrhene sea he remained;

In them he meditated;
He read the canon with Germanus—
This, histories make known."

Canons—This Canon is found in the Book of Armagh, and
in that part of that Book which was copied from St. Patrick's own
. Even could it be proved that St. Patrick never wrote these
Canons, the fact that they are in the Book of Armagh, which was
compiled, according to O'Curry, before the year 727, and even at the
latest before the year 807, is sufficient to prove the practice of the
early Irish Church on this important subject.

Further.—Life of St. Patrick, p. 315.

Authenticated.—A copy of this ancient hymn, with a
Latin and English translation, may be found in Petrie's Essay on Tara,
p. 57, in Dr. Todd's Life of St. Patrick, and in Mr. Whitley Stokes' Goidilica. We regret exceedingly that our limited space will not
permit us to give this and other most valuable and interesting
documents. There is a remarkable coincidence of thought and expression
between some portions of this hymn and the well-known prayer of St.
Ignatius of Loyola, Corpus Christi, salve me. Such coincidences are
remarkable and beautiful evidences of the oneness of faith, which
manifests itself so frequently in similarity of language as well as in
unity of belief. The Hymn of St. Patrick, written in the fifth century,
is as purely Catholic as the Prayer of St. Ignatius, written in the
sixteenth. St. Patrick places the virtue or power of the saints between
him and evil, and declares his hope of merit for his good work with the
same simple trust which all the saints have manifested from the earliest
ages. This hymn is written in the Bearla Feine, or most ancient
Gaedhilic dialect. Dr. O'Donovan well observes, that it bears internal
evidence of its authenticity in its allusion to pagan customs. Tirechan,
who wrote in the seventh century, says that there were four honours paid
to St. Patrick in all monasteries and churches throughout the whole of
. First, the festival of St. Patrick was honoured for three days
and nights with all good cheer, except flesh meat [which the Church did
not allow then to be used in Lent]. Second, there was a proper preface
for him in the Mass. Third, his hymn was sung for the whole time.
Fourth, his Scotic hymn was sung always. As we intend publishing a
metrical translation of his hymn suitable for general use, we hope it
will be "said and sung" by thousands of his own people on his festival
for all time to come.

Hell.—O'Curry, p. 539. This is translated from the
Tripartite Life of St. Patrick.

Moment.—Keating, Vol ii. p. 15.

Land.—Near the present town of Killala, co. Mayo.

Protected him.—Book of Armagh and Vit. Trip.

Death.—Vit. Trip. It was probably at this time St.
Patrick wrote his celebrated letter to Caroticus.

Daire.—Book of Armagh, fol. 6, b.a.

Confessio.—This most remarkable and interesting
document will be translated and noticed at length in the Life of St.
, which we are now preparing for the press.

St. Tussach.—All this Dr. Todd omits. The Four Masters
enter the obituary of St. Patrick under the year 457. It is obvious that
some uncertainty must exist in the chronology of this early period.

Oracle.—It is said that, three years before St.
Patrick's apostolic visit to Ireland, the druids of King Laeghairé
predicted the event to their master as an impending calamity. The names
of the druids were Lochra and Luchat Mael; their prophecy runs thus:—

"A Tailcenn will come over the raging sea,
With his perforated garment, his crook-headed staff,
With his table at the east end of his house,

And all his people will answer 'Amen, Amen.'"

The allusions to the priestly vestments, the altar at the east end of
the church, and the pastoral staff, are sufficiently obvious, and easily
explained. The prophecy is quoted by Macutenius, and quoted again from
him by Probus; but the original is in one of the most ancient and
authentic Irish MSS., the Book of Armagh.

Died.—O'Curry, p. 273.

Burial.—"The body of Laeghairé was brought afterwards
from the south, and interred with his armour of championship in the
south-east of the outer rampart of the royal rath of Laeghairé, at Tara,
with his face turned southwards upon the men of Leinster, as fighting
with them, for he was the enemy of the Leinster men in his
lifetime."—Translated from the Leabhar na Nuidhre. Petrie's Tara,
p. 170.

Always.—National customs and prejudices have always
been respected by the Church: hence she has frequently been supposed to
sanction what she was obliged to tolerate. A long residence in
Devonshire, and an intimate acquaintance with its peasantry, has
convinced us that there is incalculably more superstitions believed and practised there of the grossest kind, than in any county in Ireland.
Yet we should be sorry to charge the Established Church or its clergy,
some of whom are most earnest and hard-working men, with the sins of
their parishioners. The following extract from St. Columba's magnificent
Hymn, will show what the early Irish saints thought of pagan

"I adore not the voice of birds,
Nor sneezing, nor lots in this world,
Nor a boy, nor chance, nor woman:
My Druid is Christ, the Son of God;

Christ, Son of Mary, the great Abbot,
The Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost."


"Died the branch, the spreading tree of gold,

Aenghus the laudable."

—Four Masters, p. 153. The branches of this tree have indeed spread far
and wide, and the four great families mentioned above have increased and
multiplied in all parts of the world.

Year 503.—The Four Masters give the date 498, which
O'Donovan corrects both in the text and in a note.

Broccan's Hymn.—This Hymn was written about A.D. 510.
See the translation in Mr. Whitley Stokes' Goidilica, Calcutta, 1866.
Privately printed.

Saints.—St. Patrick, St. Columba, and St. Brigid. See
Reeves' Ecc. Anti. of Down and Connor, p. 225, and Giraldus
Cambrensis, d. 3, cap. 18.

Domhnach Airgid.—See O'Curry, MS. Materials, p. 321,
for a complete verification of the authenticity of this relic. The
Tripartite Life of St. Patrick mentions the gift of this relic by the
saint to St. MacCarthainn. Dr. Petrie concludes that the copy of the
Gospels contained therein, was undoubtedly the one which was used by our
apostle. We give a fac-simile of the first page, which cannot fail to
interest the antiquarian.

Famine years.—During the famous, or rather infamous,
Partry evictions, an old man of eighty and a woman of seventy-four were
amongst the number of those who suffered for their ancient faith. They
were driven from the home which their parents and grandfathers had
occupied, in a pitiless storm of sleet and snow. The aged woman utters
some slight complaint; but her noble-hearted aged husband consoles her
with this answer: "The sufferings and death of Jesus Christ were
bitterer still." Sixty-nine souls were cast out of doors that day. Well
might the Times say: "These evictions are a hideous scandal; and the
bishop should rather die than be guilty of such a crime." Yet, who can
count up all the evictions, massacres, tortures, and punishments which
this people has endured?

Authors.—Strabo, l. iv. p. 197; Suetonius, V. Cla.;
Pliny, Hist. Nat. l. xxv. c. 9. Pliny mentions having seen the
serpent's egg, and describes it.

Virgil.—Ec.. 6, v. 73.

Year.—Dio. Sic. tom. i. p. 158.

Magi.—Magi is always used in Latin as the equivalent
for the Irish word which signifies druid. See the Vitæ S. Columbæ, p.
73; see also Reeves' note to this word.

Worship.—In the Chronicle of Richard of Cirencester,
ch. 4, certain Roman deities are mentioned as worshipped by the British
druids; but it is probable the account is merely borrowed from Cæsar's
description of the Gauls.

Ceremonies.—Bohn's edition, p. 431.

Wren.—In Scotland the wren is an object of reverence:
hence the rhyme—

"Malisons, malisons, more than ten,
That harry the Ladye of Heaven's hen."

But it is probable the idea and the verse were originally imported from
France, where the bird is treated with special respect. There is a very
interesting paper in the Ulster Archæological Journal, vol. vii. p.
334, on the remarkable correspondence of Irish, Greek, and Oriental
legends, where the tale of Labhradh Loinseach is compared with that of
Midas. Both had asses' ears, and both were victims to the loquacious
propensities of their barbers.

Etruscans.—See Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria, vol
i p. 295, where the bas-reliefs are described which represent the præficæ, or hired mourners, wailing over the corpse.

Laid down.—Law, Saxon, lagu, lah; from lecgan==Goth. lagjan, to lay, to place; Gael. lagh, a law; leag,
to lie down; Latin, lex, from Gr. lego, to lay.

It.—Four Masters, vol. i p. 133. The Seanchus Mor was
sometimes called Cain Phadruig, or Patrick's Law.

Seanchus.—From the old Celtic root sen, old, which
has direct cognates, not merely in the Indo-European, but also in the
Semitic; Arabic, sen, old, ancient—sunnah, institution, regulation;
Persian, san, law, right; sanna, Phoenicibus idem fuit quod Arabibus summa, lex, doctrina jux canonicum.—Bochart, Geo. Sæ. 1. ii. c. 17.
See Petrie's Tara, p. 79.

Day.—O'Curry, page 201.

Works.—He appears to have been the author of the
original Book of Rights, and "commenced and composed the Psalter of
Caiseal, in which are described the acts, laws," &c.—See Preface to
Seanchus Mor, p. 17.

Arrears.—Elphinstone's India, vol. i. p. 372.

Forbidden.—"You shall not take money of him that is
guilty of blood, but he shall die forthwith."—Numbers, xxxv. 31.

Proved.—See Pictet's Origines Indo-Européennes. He
mentions his surprise at finding a genuine Sanscrit word in Irish,
which, like a geological boulder, had been transported from one
extremity of the Aryan world to the other. Pictet considers that the
first wave of Aryan emigration occurred 3,000 years before the Christian

Writing.—"Finally, Dudley Firbisse, hereditary
professor of the antiquities of his country, mentions in a letter [to
me] a fact collected from the monuments of his ancestors, that one
hundred and eighty tracts [tractatus] of the doctrine of the druids or
magi, were condemned to the flames in the time of St.
Patrick."—Ogygia, iii. 30, p. 219. A writer in the Ulster Arch.
mentions a "Cosmography," printed at "Lipsiæ, 1854." It appears
to be a Latin version or epitome of a Greek work. The writer of this
Cosmography was born in 103. He mentions having "examined the volumes"

of the Irish, whom he visited. If this authority is reliable, it would
at once settle the question.—See Ulster Arch. Journal, vol. ii. p.

Hand.—A work on this subject has long been promised by
Dr. Graves, and is anxiously expected by paleographists. We regret to
learn that there is no immediate prospect of its publication.

Quipus.—Quipus signifies a knot. The cords were of
different colours. Yellow denoted gold and all the allied ideas; white,
silver, or peace; red, war, or soldiers. Each quipus was in the care of
a quiper-carnayoe, or keeper. Acorta mentions that he saw a woman with a
handful of these strings, which she said contained a confession of her
life. See Wilson's Pre-Historic Man for most interesting details on
the subject of symbolic characters and early writing.

Care.—Annals of Boyle, vol. ii. p. 22. Essay, p.

Peoples.—See Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria, vol.
ii. p. 314, where the writer describes tombs sunk beneath a tumulus,
about twenty-five or thirty feet in diameter, and also tombs exactly
resembling the Irish cromlech, the covering slab of enormous size, being
inclined "apparently to carry off the rain." In his account of the
geographical sites of these remains, he precisely, though most
unconsciously, marks out the line of route which has been assigned by
Irish annalists as that which led our early colonizers to Ireland. He
says they are found in the presidency of Madras, among the mountains of
the Caucasus, on the steppes of Tartary, in northern Africa, "on the
shores of the Mediterranean they are particularly abundant
," and in

Shells.—Cat. Ant. R.I.A.; Stone Mat. p. 180. The
ethnographic phases of conchology might form a study in itself. Shells
appear to be the earliest form of ornament in use. The North American
Indians have their shell necklaces buried with them also. See Wilson's Pre-Historic Man.

Child.—Mr. Wilson gives a most interesting description
of an interment of a mother and child in an ancient Peruvian grave. The
mother had an unfinished piece of weaving beside her, with its colours
still bright. The infant was tenderly wrapped in soft black woollen
cloth, to which was fastened a pair of little sandals, 2-1/2 inches
long; around its neck was a green cord, attached to a small
shell.—Pre-Historic Man, vol. i. p. 234.

Clare.—In 1855, in digging for a railway-cutting in
the county Clare, gold ornaments were found worth £2,000 as bullion.

Carbuncle.—This word was used to denote any shining
stone of a red colour, such as garnet, a production of the country.

Blefed.—The name Crom Chonaill indicates a sickness
which produced a yellow colour in the skin.

Sanctuary.—This may appear a severe punishment, but
the right of sanctuary was in these ages the great means of protection
against lawless force, and its violation was regarded as one of the
worst of sacrileges.

Oak.—Dr. Petrie mentions that there were stones still
at Tara which probably formed a portion of one of the original
buildings. It was probably of the Pelasgian or Cyclopean kind.

Hour.—Petrie's Tara, p. 31.

Tuathal.—Very ancient authorities are found for this
in the Leabhar Gabhala, or Book of Conquests.

Mill.—"Cormac, the grandson of Con, brought a
millwright over the great sea." It is clear from the Brehon laws that
mills were common in Ireland at an early period. It is probable that
Cormac brought the "miller and his men" from Scotland. Whittaker shows
that a water-mill was erected by the Romans at every stationary city in
Roman Britain. The origin of mills is attributed to Mithridates, King of
Cappadocia, about seventy years B.C. The present miller claims to be a
descendant of the original miller.

Identical.—First, "because the Lia Fail is spoken of
by all ancient Irish writers in such a manner as to leave no doubt that
it remained in its original situation at the time they wrote." Second,
"because no Irish account of its removal to Scotland is found earlier
than Keating, and he quotes Boetius, who obviously wished to sustain the
claims of the Stuarts." The pillar-stone is composed of granular
limestone, but no stone of this description is found in the vicinity. As
may be supposed, there are all kinds of curious traditions about this
stone. One of these asserts that it was the pillar on which Jacob
reposed when he saw the vision of angels. Josephus states that the
descendants of Seth invented astronomy, and that they engraved their
discoveries on a pillar of brick and a pillar of stone
. These pillars
remained, in the historian's time, in the land of Siris.—Ant. Jud. l.
2, § 3.

At once.—See Petrie's Tara, p. 213.

Roads.—See Napoleon's Julius Cæsar, vol. ii. p. 22,
for mention of the Celtic roads in Gaul.

Chariots.—St. Patrick visited most parts of Ireland in
a chariot, according to the Tripartite Life. Carbad or chariots are
mentioned in the oldest Celtic tales and romances, and it is distinctly
stated in the life of St. Patrick preserved in the Book of Armagh, that
the pagan Irish had chariots. Different kinds of roads are expressly
mentioned, and also the duty of road-mending, and those upon whom this
duty devolved. See Introduction to the Book of Rights, p. 56.

Probable.—The legend of St. Brendan was widely
diffused in the Middle Ages. In the Bibliothéque Impériale, at Paris,
there are no less than eleven MSS. of the original Latin legend, the
dates of which vary from the eleventh to the fourteenth century. In the
old French and Romance dialects there are abundant copies in most public
libraries in France; while versions in Irish, Dutch, German, Italian,
Spanish, and Portuguese, abound in all parts of the Continent. Traces of
ante-Columbian voyages to America are continually cropping up. But the
appearance, in 1837, of the Antiquitates Americanæ sive ita Scriptores
Septentrionales rerum ante-Columbiarum
, in America, edited by Professor
Rafu, at Copenhagen, has given final and conclusive evidence on this
interesting subject. America owes its name to an accidental landing. Nor
is it at all improbable that the Phoenicians, in their voyage across the
stormy Bay of Biscay, or the wild Gulf of Guinea, may have been driven
far out of their course to western lands. Even in 1833 a Japanese junk
was wrecked upon the coast of Oregon. Humboldt believes that the Canary
Isles were known, not only to the Phoenicians, but "perhaps even to the
Etruscans." There is a map in the Library of St. Mark, at Venice, made
in the year 1436, where an island is delineated and named Antillia. See
Trans. R.I.A. vol. xiv. A distinguished modern poet of Ireland has made
the voyage of St. Brendan the subject of one of the most beautiful of
his poems.

Magh-Rath.—Now Moira, in the county Down. The
Chronicum Scotorum gives the date 636, and the Annals of Tighernach at
637, which Dr. O'Donovan considers to be the true date.

Gratis.—Ven. Bede, cap. xxviii.

Rule.—"The light which St. Columbanus disseminated, by
his knowledge and doctrine, wherever he presented himself, caused a
contemporary writer to compare him to the sun in his course from east to
west; and he continued after his death to shine forth in numerous
disciples whom he had trained in learning and piety."—Benedictine
Hist. Litt. de la France

World.—See Herring's Collectanea and the Bibliotheca Patrum, tom. xii.

Bobbio.—My learned friend, the Rev. J.P. Gaffney, of
Clontarf, has in his possession a printed copy of the celebrated Bobbio
. It is contained in a work entitled "MUSEUM ITALICUM, seu
collectio Veterum Scriptorum ex Bibliothesis Italicis," eruta a D.J.
Mabillon et D.M. Germain, presbyteris et monachis, Benedictinæ, Cong. S.
Mauré. This work was published at Paris in 1687. The original Missal was
discovered by Mabillon two hundred years ago, and is at present
preserved in the Ambrosian Library at Milan. It dates from the seventh
century, and is no doubt the identical Missal or Mass-book used by the
saint. As my friend has allowed me to retain the treasure for a time, I
intend to give full details on the subject in my Ecclesiastical History.
For further information at present, I refer the reader to the Rev. J.P.
Gaffney's Religion of the Ancient Irish Church p. 43, and to Dr.
Moran's learned Essays, p. 287. I especially request the superiors of
religious orders to afford me any information in their possession
concerning the history of their respective orders in Ireland, and also
of their several houses. Details of re-erections of religious houses on
old sites are particularly desired. All books or documents which may be
forwarded to me shall be carefully returned.

Solivagus.—Four Masters, p. 391.

Ireland.—The elder Sedulius, whose hymns are even now
used by the Church, lived in the fifth century. The hymn, A solis ortis
, and many others, are attributed to him.

Culdee.—There was much dispute at one time as to the
origin and true character of the Culdees. The question, however, has
been quite set at rest by the researches of recent Irish scholars.
Professor O'Curry traces them up to the time of St. Patrick. He thinks
they were originally mendicant monks, and that they had no communities
until the end of the eighth century, when St. Maelruain of Tallaght drew
up a rule for them. This rule is still extant. Mr. Haverty (Irish
, p. 110) has well observed, they probably resembled the
Tertiaries, or Third Orders, which belong to the Orders of St. Dominic
and St. Francis at the present day. See also Dr. Reeves' Life of St.
for some clear and valuable remarks on this subject.

Measure.—The subject of Irish poetical composition
would demand a considerable space if thoroughly entertained. Zeuss has
done admirable justice to the subject in his Grammatica Celtica, where
he shows that the word rhyme [rimum] is of Irish origin. The Very Rev.
U. Burke has also devoted some pages to this interesting investigation,
in his College Irish Grammar. He observes that the phonetic framework
in which the poetry of a people is usually fashioned, differs in each of
the great national families, even as their language and genius differ.
He also shows that the earliest Latin ecclesiastical poets were Irish,
and formed their hymns upon the rules of Irish versification; thus quite
controverting the theory that rhyme was introduced by the Saracens in
the ninth century.

Order.—This refers to the vision in which St. Patrick
is said to have seen three orders of saints, who should succeed each
other in Ireland.

Discipline.—Bede, lib. iii. cap. 3. We have used
Bohn's translation, as above all suspicion.

England.—Camden says: "At that age the Anglo-Saxons
repaired on all sides to Ireland as to a general mart of learning,
whence we read, in our writers, of holy men, that they went to study in
Ireland"—Amandatus est ad disciplinam in Hiberniam.

Expanded.—I take this opportunity of requesting from
laymen or ecclesiastics who may read this announcement, the favour of
any information they may consider valuable.

Heaven.—Ec. Hist. lib. iv. c. 26. "From that time the
hopes and strength of the English crown began to waver and retrograde,
for the Picts recovered their own lands," &c. The Annals of the Four
Masters mention a mortality among cattle throughout the whole world, and
a severe frost, which followed this invasion: "The sea between Ireland
and Scotland was frozen, so that there was a communication between them
on the ice."—vol. ii. p. 291. They also mention the mission of Adamnan
to "Saxon land."

Galls.—Gall was a generic name for foreigners. The
Danes were Finn Galls, or White Foreigners, and Dubh Galls, or Black
Foreigners. The former were supposed to have been the inhabitants of
Norway; the latter, of Jutland. In Irish, gaill is the nom., and gall, gen.

Streets.—In Armagh the buildings were formed into
streets and wards, for the better preservation of monastic discipline.
Armagh was divided into three parts—trian-more, the town proper; trian-Patrick, the cathedral close; and trian-Sassenagh, the home of
the foreign students.

Michaelmas.—Annals, p. 371. Another fearful
thunderstorm is recorded in the Annals for 799. This happened on the eve
of St. Patrick's Day. It is said that a thousand and ten persons were
killed on the coast of Clare. The island of Fitha (now Mutton Island)
was partly submerged, and divided into three parts. There was also a
storm in 783—"thunder, lightning, and wind-storms"—by which the
Monastery of Clonbroney was destroyed.

Reachrainn.-Rechru appears to be the correct form. It
has not yet been ascertained whether this refers to Lambay, near Dublin,
or the island 01 Rathlinn. See note, p. 32, to the "Introduction" to the Wars of the Gaedhil with the Gall.

Mistake.—Ethel. Chron. Pro. book iii.

Irish.—The history of the two hundred years during
which these northern pirates desolated the island, has been preserved in
a MS. of venerable age and undoubted authenticity. It is entitled Cogadh Gaedhil re Gallaibh (the Wars of the Gaedhil with the Gall). It
was quoted by Keating, known to Colgan, and used by the Four Masters;
but for many years it was supposed to have been completely lost, until
it was discovered, in 1840, by Mr. O'Curry, among the Seabright MSS. The
work is now edited, with a translation and most valuable notes, by Dr.
Todd. Several other copies have been discovered since, notably one by
the Franciscan Brother, Michael O'Clery, which is at present in the
Burgundian Library at Brussels. From internal evidence, it is presumed
that the author was a contemporary of King Brian Boroimhé. Dr. O'Connor
refers the authorship to Mac Liag, who was chief poet to that monarch,
and died in 1016, two years after his master. Dr. Todd evidently
inclines to this opinion, though he distinctly states that there is no
authority for it.

Death.—It appears doubtful whether he really died at
this time. It is said that he repented of his sins of sacrilege, and
ended his days in penance and religious retirement. See Four Masters, p.

Conquered.—Duald Mac Firbis gives a curious account of
these contests in his fragments of Annals. The White Galls, or
Norwegians, had long been masters of the situation. The Black Galls
fought with them for three days and nights, and were finally victorious.
They take the ships they have captured to Dublin, and deprive the
Lochlanns (Black Galls) of all the spoil they had so cruelly and
unjustly acquired from the "shrines and sanctuaries of the saints of
Erinn;" which the annalist naturally considers a judgment on them for
their sins. They make another struggle, and gain the victory. But the
Banish general, Horm, advises his men to put themselves under the
protection of St. Patrick, and to promise the saint "honorable alms for
gaining victory and triumph" over enemies who had plundered his
churches. They comply with this advice; and though greatly inferior in
numbers, they gain the victory, "on account of the tutelage of St.

Carlow.—The site of the battle is still shown there,
and even the stone on which the soldier decapitated Cormac. Cormac's
death is thus described in a MS. in the Burgundian Library: "The hind
feet of his horse slipped on the slippery road in the track of that
blood; the horse fell backwards, and broke his [Cormac's] back and his
neck in twain; and he said, when falling, In manus tuas commendo
spiritum meum
, and he gives up his spirit; and the impious sons of
malediction come and thrust spears into his body, and sever his head
from his body." Keating gives a curious account of this battle, from an
ancient tract not known at present.

Amlaff.—Dr. Todd identifies Amlaff with Olaf Huita
(the white), of Scandinavian history, who was usually styled King of
Dublin, and was the leader of the Northmen in Ireland for many years.
See "Introduction" to the Wars of the Gaedhil, p. 69.

Cenn-Fuait.—Fuat Head. The site has not been
accurately identified.

Magh-Neill, i.e., the Plain of Nial, a bardic name for
Ireland.—Four Masters, vol. ii. p. 595.

Ath-Truisten.—From Dublin to a ford on the river
Green, near Mullaghmast, co. Kildare.

Muircheartach.—This prince obtained the soubriquet of
Muircheartach of the Leathern Cloaks. The origin of this appellation has
not been precisely ascertained.

Dagger.—The king visited the shrine on his way to
battle, and hanging up his dagger, the then symbol of knightly valour,
vowed to release it with a kingly ransom if God gave him the victory. He
obtained his desire, and nobly fulfilled his vow.

Tyrants.—J. Roderick O'Flanagan, Esq., M.R.I.A., has
permitted me to extract the account of the battle of Dundalk from his
valuable and interesting History of Dundalk and its Environs. Dublin:
Hodges and Smith, 1864. This gentleman has devoted himself specially to
elucidating the subject, and with a kindness which I cannot easily
forget, permits me to avail myself, not only of his literary labours,
but even to transfer to the pages of this work several complete pages
from his own.

Chess.—Flann Sionna, Monarch of Ireland, had encamped
on this plain, and ostentatiously commenced a game of chess as a mark of
contempt for the chieftains whose country he had invaded. His folly met
its just punishment, for he was ignominiously defeated. See Wars of the
, p. 113, note.

Valour.—Wars of the Gaedhil, p. 101.

Belach-Lechta.—The site has not been definitely
ascertained. Some authorities place it near Macroom, co. Cork.

Glen-Mama.—The Glen of the Gap, near Dunlavin. This
was the ancient stronghold of the kings of Leinster in Wicklow. There is
a long and very interesting note on the locality, by the Rev. J.F.
Shearman, R.C.C., in the "Introduction" to the Wars of the Gaedhil. He
mentions that pits have been discovered even recently, containing the
remains of the slain.

Deeds.—The origin of surnames is also attributed to
Brian Boroimhé, from a fragment in the Library of Trinity College,
Dublin, supposed to be a portion of a life of that monarch written by
his poet Mac Liag. Surnames were generally introduced throughout Europe
in the tenth and twelfth centuries. The Irish gave their names to their
lands. In other countries patronymics were usually taken from the names
of the hereditary possessions.

Fifty-three.—See Dr. O'Donovan's note to Annals, p.

Fidh-Gaibhli.—Now Feegile, near Portarlington.

Given.—The Book of Rights mentions, that one of the
rights to which the King of Leinster was entitled from the King of
Ireland, was "fine textured clothes at Tara," as well as "sevenscore
suits of clothes of good colour, for the use of the sons of the great
chieftain."—Book of Rights, p. 251. From the conduct of Gormflaith, as
related above, it is evident that the tunic was some token of

Murrough.—He was eldest son by Brian's first wife,
Môr. He had three sons by this lady, who were all slain at Clontarf.

Yew-tree.—This was a sharp insult. After the battle of
Glen-Mama, Maelmordha had hidden himself in a yew-tree, where he was
discovered and taken prisoner by Murrough.

Land.—Wars of the Gaedhil, p. 151.

Brodir.—It has been suggested that this was not his
real name. He was Ospak's brother, and Brodir may have been mistaken
for a proper name. There was a Danish Viking named Gutring, who was an
apostate deacon, and who may have been the Brodir of Irish history.

Baptism.—Burnt Njal, ii. 332.

Combat.—Wars of the Gaedhil, p. 157.

Magh-n-Ealta.—The Plain of the Flocks, lying between
Howth and Tallaght, so called from Eder, a chieftain who perished before
the Christian era.

Clontarf.—There is curious evidence that the account
of the battle of Clontarf must have been written by an eye-witness, or
by one who had obtained his information from an eye-witness. The author
states that "the foreigners came out to fight the battle in the morning
at the full tide," and that the tide came in again in the evening at the
same place. The Danes suffered severely from this, "for the tide had
carried away their ships from them." Consequently, hundreds perished in
the waves.—Wars of the Gaedhil, p. 191. Dr. Todd mentions that he
asked the Rev. S. Haughton, of Trinity College, Dublin, to calculate for
him "what was the hour of high water at the shore of Clontarf, in Dublin
Bay, on the 23rd of April, 1014." The result was a full confirmation of
the account given by the author of the Wars of the Gaedhil—the Rev.
S. Haughton having calculated that the morning tide was full in at 5.30
a.m., the evening tide being full at 5.55 p.m.

Siguard.—Various accounts are given of the disposition
of forces on each side, so that it is impossible to speak with accuracy
on the subject. We know how difficult it is to obtain correct
particulars on such occasions, even with the assistance of "own
correspondents" and electric telegraphs.

Psalms.—To recite the Psalter in this way was a
special devotional practice of the middle ages.

Brian.—Burnt Njal, ii. 337. If this account be
reliable, Brian did not live to receive the last sacraments, as other
authorities state.

City.—Some Irish religious are also said to have lived
in amity with Greek monks, who were established at Tours, in France; and
it is said that the Irish joined them in the performance of the
ecclesiastical offices in their own language.

Connemara.—Haverty's History of Ireland, p. 156. See
also an interesting note on this subject in the Chronicum Scotorum.

Martyr.—Page 887. The famine in the preceding year is
also recorded, as well as the cholic and "lumps," which prevailed in
Leinster, and also spread throughout Ireland. Donough was married to an
English princess, Driella, the daughter of the English Earl Godwin, and
sister of Harold, afterwards King of England. During the rebellion of
Godwin and his sons against Edward the Confessor, Harold was obliged to
take refuge in Ireland, and remained there "all the winter on the king's

St. Patrick.—It is observable all through the Annals,
how the name and spiritual authority of St. Patrick is revered. This
expression occurs regularly from the earliest period, wherever the
Primate of Ireland is mentioned.

Vengeance.—See O'Curry, passim, for curious
traditions or so-called prophecies about St. John Baptist's Day.

Aileach.—The remains of this fortress are still
visible near Londonderry, and are called Grianan-Elagh.

West.—Annals, vol. ii. p. 969.

Him.—Ib. p 973.

Ua h-Ocain.—Now anglicised O'Hagan. This family had
the special privilege of crowning the O'Neills, and were their
hereditary Brehons. The Right Honorable Judge O'Hagan is, we believe,
the present head of the family.

Maelmuire.—"The servant of Mary." Devotion to the
Mother of God, which is still a special characteristic of the Irish
nation, was early manifested by the adoption of this name.

Suffering.—This abuse was not peculiar to the Irish
Church. A canon of the Council of London, A.D. 1125, was framed to
prevent similar lay appropriations. In the time of Cambrensis there were
lay (so called) abbots, who took the property of the Church into their
own hands, and made their children receive holy orders that they might
enjoy the revenues.

Desmond.—See the commencement of this chapter, for an
illustration of the ruins of its ancient rath and the more modern
castle. These remains are among the most interesting in Ireland.

Ibrach.—Supposed to be Ivragh, in Kerry, which was
part of Cormac Mac Carthy's kingdom.

Robbed.—In MacGeoghegan's translation of the Annals of
Clonmacnois he says:—"The clergy of Clone made incessant prayer to God
and St. Keyran, to be a means for the revelation of the party that took
away the said jewels." The "party" was a Dane. He was discovered, and
hung in 1130. It is said that he entered several ships to leave the
country, but they could get no wind, while other vessels sailed off
freely.—Annals of the Four Masters, vol. ii. p. 1035.

Blinded.—In 1165 Henry II. gratified his irritation
against the Welsh by laying hands upon the hostages of their noblest
families, and commanding that the eyes of the males should be rooted
out, and the ears and noses of the females cut off; and yet Henry is
said to have been liberal to the poor, and though passionately devoted
to the chase, he did not inflict either death or mutilation on the
intruders in the royal forests.

Moin Môr.—Now Moanmore, county Tipperary.

Day.—Wilkinson's Geology and Architecture of
, p. 59.

Celt.—Catalogue of R.I.A. p. 43. This celt is the
largest discovered in Ireland, and is formed of coarse clay-slate. It is
22 inches long, 1 inch thick, and 3-3/4 broad at the widest part. It was
found in the bed of the river Blackwater, two miles below Charlemont,
county Armagh.

Axe.—Catalogue of R.I.A. p. 80. Sir W. Wilde
pronounces this to be one of the most beautiful specimens of the stone
battle-axe which has been found in Ireland, both for design and
execution. It is composed of fine-grained remblendic sylicite, and is
highly polished all over. It was found in the river at Athlone.

Wright.—History of Domestic Manners and Sentiments,
p. 11.

Hall.—Hence the term "hall" is still used to denote
mansions of more than ordinary importance. The hall was the principal
part of the ancient Saxon house, and the term used for the part was
easily transferred to the whole.

Discovery.—Ulster Arch. Journal, vol. v. p. 83.

Assigned.—Petrie's Tara, p. 200.

Smith.—The animals were brought to the smith, who
knocked them down with his big hammer: hence, probably, the name of
Smithfield for a cattle market. He was an important personage in the
olden time. In the Odyssey, as armourer, he ranks with the bard and

Tinnés.—Dr. Petrie does not give the meaning of this
word, but Dr. O'Donovan supplies the deficiency in the Book of Rights,
where he explains it to mean a salted pig, or in plain English, bacon.

Table.—In the earliest ages of Tara's existence, the
household may have been served as they sat on the benches round the
hall. The table was at first simply a board: hence we retain the term a
hospitable board; a board-room, a room where a board was placed for
writing on. The board was carried away after dinner, and the trestles on
which it stood, so as to leave room for the evening's amusements.

Cooked.—Wright's Domestic Manners, p. 87. The
knights in this engraving are using their shields as a substitute for a
table. At p. 147 there is an illustration of the method of cooking on a
spit; this is turned by a boy. The Irish appear to have had a mechanical
arrangement for this purpose some centuries earlier. Bellows, which are
now so commonly used in Ireland, and so rare in England, appear to have
been a Saxon invention.

Poems.—Ulster Arch. Journal, vol. i. p. 108. It
would appear as if corn had been eaten raw, or perhaps partly scorched,
at an early period, as was customary in eastern countries. Teeth have
been found in crania taken from our ancient tombs, quite worn down by
some such process of mastication.

Weir.—Salt appears to have been used also at a very
ancient period, though it cannot now be ascertained how it was procured.
Perhaps it was obtained from native sources now unknown.

Gold.—Book of Rights, pp. 145, 209, &c. The King of
Cashel was entitled to a hundred drinking horns.—p. 33.

Beer.—Book of Rights, p. 9.

Period.—Accounts will be given later of the use of aqua vitæ, or whisky, after the English invasion. The English appear
to have appreciated this drink, for we find, in 1585, that the Mayor of
Waterford sent Lord Burleigh a "rundell of aqua vitæ;" and in another
letter, in the State Paper Office, dated October 14, 1622, the Lord
Justice Coke sends a "runlett of milde Irish uskebach," from his
daughter Peggie (heaven save the mark!) to the "good Lady Coventry,"

because the said Peggie "was so much bound to her ladyship for her great
goodness." However, the said Lord Justice strongly recommends the uskebach to his lordship, assuring him that "if it please his lordship
next his heart in the morning to drinke a little of this Irish uskebach, it will help to digest all raw humours, expell wynde, and
keep his inward parte warm all the day after." A poor half-starved
Irishman in the present century, could scarcely have brought forward
more extenuating circumstances for his use of the favourite beverage;
and he might have added that he had nothing else to "keep him warm."

Bricks.—In an ancient life of St. Kevin of
Glendalough, there is mention made of certain brick-cheeses, which the
saint converted into real bricks, in punishment to a woman for telling a

King.—Book of Rights, p. 15.

Informs us.—Domestic Manners, p. 43.

Macaulay.—Lays of Ancient Rome.—Horatius.

Cambrensis.—"Hinc accidit, ut Episcopi et Abbates, et
Sancti in Hiberniâ viri cytharas circumferre et in eis modulando pié
delectari consueverunt."—Cam. Des. p. 739.

Observes.—Asiatic Researches, vol. ix. p. 76.

Asia.—See Carl Eugen's valuable work on the Music of
Ancient Nations passim

Country.—Erste Wanderung der ältesten Tonkunst, von
G.W. Fruh, Essen, 1831. In Conran's National Music of Ireland, he
attributes this to the influence of ecclesiastical music. But an article
by Mr. Darmey, in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, takes a
much more probable view. The Ambrosian chant, introduced about A.D. 600,
could not have influenced national music which existed for centuries
before that period.

Shoes.—The use of inauguration shoes appears to have
been very ancient in Ireland. It will be remembered how early and how
frequently the shoe is mentioned in Scripture in connexion with legal
arrangements. It was obviously an important object in Eastern business

Book of Rights.—The great antiquity and perfect
authenticity of this most valuable work, should be remembered. It is
admitted that the original Book of Rights was compiled by St. Benignus,
the disciple of St. Patrick. Dr. O'Donovan thinks there is every reason
to believe that this work was in existence in the time of Cormac, the
bishop-king of Cashel, A.D. 900. It is probable that the present Book of
Rights was compiled about this period, from the more ancient volume of
the same name.

Dá Derga.—See an interesting Essay on the Curragh of
Kildare, by Mr. W.M. Hennessy, read before the R.I.A., February 26,

Profit.—The trustees of the estates forfeited in 1688
notice this especially. Trees to the value of £20,000 were cut down and
destroyed on the estate of Sir Valentine Brown, near Killarney, and to
the value of £27,000 on the territory of the Earl of Clancarty. Some of
these trees were sold for sixpence a piece.

Merchants.—Wright says that "theft and unfair dealing"
were fearfully prevalent among the Anglo-Normans, and mentions, as an
example, how some Irish merchants were robbed who came to Ely to sell
their wares.—Domestic Manners, p. 78. It would appear that there was
considerable slave-trade carried on with the British merchants. The
Saxons, who treated their dependents with savage cruelty (see Wright, p.
56), sold even their children as slaves to the Irish. In 1102 this
inhuman traffic was forbidden by the Council of London. Giraldus
Cambrensis mentions that, at a synod held at Armagh, A.D. 1170, the
Irish clergy, who had often forbidden this trade, pronounced the
invasion of Ireland by Englishmen to be a just judgment on the Irish for
their share in the sin, and commanded that all who had English slaves
should at once set them free. Mr. Haverty remarks, that it was a curious
and characteristic coincidence, that an Irish deliberative assembly
should thus, by an act of humanity to Englishmen, have met the merciless
aggressions which the latter had just then commenced against this
country.—Hist. of Ireland, p. 169.

Nesta.—David Powell, in his notes to the Itinerary of
, states that this lady was a daughter of Rufus, Prince of
Demetia. She was distinguished for her beauty, and infamous for her
gallantries. She had a daughter by Gerald of Windsor, called Augweth,
who was mother to Giraldus Cambrensis. This relationship accounts for
the absurd eulogiums which he has lavished on the Geraldines. Demetia is
the district now called Pembrokeshire, where a colony of Normans
established themselves after the Norman Conquest.—See Thierry's Norman

Men-at-arms.—Hibernia Expugnata, lib. i. c. 16.

Bargy.—Our illustration gives a view of the remains of
this ancient castle. It was formerly the residence of Bagenal Harvey, a
Protestant gentleman, who suffered in the rebellion of 1798, for his
adherence to the cause of Ireland.

Flemings.—Dr. O'Donovan mentions, in a note to the
Four Masters, that he was particularly struck with the difference
between the personal appearance of the inhabitants of the baronies where
they settled. The Cavanaghs and Murphys are tall and slight; the
Flemings and Codds short and stout. They still retain some peculiarities
of language.

Rule.—What the rule of this ferocious monster may have
been we can judge from what is related of him by Cambrensis. Three
hundred heads of the slain were piled up before him; and as he leaped
and danced with joy at the ghastly sight, he recognized a man to whom he
had a more than ordinary hatred. He seized the head by the ears, and
gratified his demoniacal rage by biting off the nose and lips of his
dead enemy.

Easterly.—Cambrensis takes to himself the credit of
having advised the despatch of a letter to Strongbow. He also gives us
the letter, which probably was his own composition, as it is written in
the same strain of bombast as his praises of his family.—Hib. Expug.
lib. i. c. 12. It commences thus: "We have watched the storks and
swallows; the summer birds are come and gone," &c. We imagine that
Dermod's style, if he had taken to epistolary correspondence, would have
been rather a contrast.

Suffolk.—See Gilbert's Viceroys of Dublin, passim.
We recommend this work to our readers. It should be in the hands of
every Irishman at least. It combines the attraction of romance with the
accuracy of carefully written history.

Been.—If we are to believe Cambrensis, Raymond argued
against this cruelty, and Henry in favour of it.

Deserved.—The Annals of Clonmacnois give a similar
account; but in a paper MS. in Trinity College, Dublin, it is said that
he died "after the victory of penance and unction." The old account is
probably the more reliable, as it is the more consonant with his
previous career.

Difficulty.—The army was so well supplied, that the
English got sufficient corn, meal, and pork to victual the city of
Dublin for a whole year.—Harris' Hibernæ, p. 25.

Crime.—So fearful was the unfortunate monarch of a
public excommunication and interdict, that he sent courtiers at once to
Rome to announce his submission. When he heard of the murder he shut
himself up for three days, and refused all food, except "milk of
almonds." See Vita Quadrip. p. 143. It would appear this was a
favourite beverage, from the amount of almonds which were brought to
Ireland for his special benefit. See p. 272.

Irish Brooch.—The brooch figured above is of great
antiquity. It was found in the Ardkillen crannoge, near Strokestown,
county Roscommon. The original is in the Royal Irish Academy, and is
considered the finest specimen of bronze workmanship in the collection.

Standing.—Four Masters, vol. iii. p. 5, note m.

Mills.—Dame-street derived its name from a dam or
mill-stream near it. There was also the gate of Blessed Mary del Dam.
The original name was preserved until quite recently. In the reign of
Charles I. the Master of the Rolls had a residence here, which is
described as being "in a very wholesome air, with a good orchard and
garden leading down to the water-side."—Gilbert's Dublin, vol. ii.
p. 264. In fact, the residences here were similar to those pleasant
places on the Thames, once the haunts of the nobility of London.

Peacocks.—To serve a peacock with its feathers was one
of the grandest exploits of mediæval cookery. It was sown up in its skin
after it had been roasted, when it was allowed to cool a little. The
bird then appeared at the last course as if alive. Cream of almonds was
also a favourite dainty. Indeed, almonds were used in the composition of
many dishes; to use as many and as various ingredients as possible
seeming to be the acme of gastronomy. St. Bernard had already loudly
condemned the bon vivants of the age. His indignation appears to have
been especially excited by the various methods in which eggs were
cooked. But even seculars condemned the excesses of Norman luxuries, and
declared that the knights were loaded with wine instead of steel, and
spits instead of lances.

Henri-curt-mantel.—A soubriquet derived from the short
mantle he constantly wore.

Good.—Even the infidel Voltaire admitted that the
Popes restrained princes, and protected the people. The Bull In Coena
contained an excommunication against those who should levy new
taxes upon their estates, or should increase those already existing
beyond the bounds of right. For further information on this subject, see
Balmez, European Civilization, passim. M. Guizot says: "She [the
Church] alone resisted the system of castes; she alone maintained the
principle of equality of competition; she alone called all legitimate
superiors to the possession of power."—Hist. Gen. de la Civilization
en Europe
, Lect. 5.

Grounds.—De Maistre and Fénélon both agree in
grounding this power on constitutional right; but the former also
admitted a divine right.—De Maistre, Du Pape, lib. ii. p. 387.

Grant.—See M. Gosselin's Power of the Popes during
the Middle Ages
, for further information on this subject.

Writer.—Ireland, Historical and Statistical.

Bull.—There can be no reasonable doubt of the
authenticity of this document. Baronius published it from the Codex
; John XXII. has annexed it to his brief addresed to Edward
II.; and John of Salisbury states distinctly, in his Metalogicus, that
he obtained this Bull from Adrian. He grounds the right of donation on
the supposed gift of the island by Constantine. As the question is one
of interest and importance, we subjoin the original: "Ad preces meas
illustri Regi Anglorum Henrico II. concessit (Adrianus) et dedit
Hiberniam jure hæreditario possidendam, sicut literae ipsius testantur
in hodiernum diem. Nam omnes insulæ de jure antiquo ex donatione
Constantini, qui eam fundavit et dotavit, dicuntur ad Romanam Ecclesiam
pertinere."—Metalogicus, i. 4.

Friends.—Hib. Expug. lib. ii. c. 38.

Hugh de Lacy.—In a charter executed at Waterford,
Henry had styled this nobleman "Bailli," a Norman term for a
representative of royalty. The territory bestowed on him covered 800,000
acres. This was something like wholesale plunder.

Building.—This was the Danish fortress of Dublin,
which occupied the greater part of the hill on which the present Castle
of Dublin stands. See note, Four Masters, vol. iii. p. 5. The Annals
say this was a "spectacle of intense pity to the Irish." It certainly
could not have tended to increase their devotion to English rule.

Waterford.—The English and Irish accounts of this
affair differ widely. The Annals of Innisfallen make the number of slain
to be only seven hundred. MacGeoghegan agrees with the Four Masters.

Coat-of-mail.—Costly mantles were then fashionable.
Strutt informs us that Henry I. had a mantle of fine cloth, lined with
black sable, which cost £100 of the money of the time—about £1,500 of
our money. Fairholt gives an illustration of the armour of the time
(History of Costume, p. 74). It was either tegulated or formed of
chains in rings. The nasal appendage to the helmet was soon after
discarded, probably from the inconvenient hold it afforded the enemy of
the wearer in battle. Face-guards were invented soon after.

Property.—Maurice FitzGerald died at Wexford in 1179.
He is the common ancestor of the Earls of Desmond and Kildare, the
Knights of Glynn, of Kerry, and of all the Irish Geraldines.

Letter.—"To Raymond, her most loving lord and husband,
his own Basilia wishes health as to herself. Know you, my dear lord,
that the great tooth in my jaw, which was wont to ache so much, is now
fallen out; wherefore, if you have any love or regard for me, or of
yourself, you will delay not to hasten hither with all
speed."—Gilbert's Viceroys, p. 40. It is said that this letter was
read for Raymond by a cleric of his train, so it is presumable that
reading and writing were not made a part of his education.

Terms.—Hib. Expug. lib. i. cap. 27.

Buried.—The early history of this church is involved
in much obscurity. It probably owes its origin to the Danes. Cambrensis
gives some interesting details about it, and mentions several miraculous
occurrences which caused it to be held in great veneration in his days.
He specially mentions the case of a young man in the train of Raymond le Gros, who had robbed him of his greaves, and who had taken a false
oath before the cross of that church to clear himself. After a short
absence in England he was compelled to return and confess his guilt, "as
he felt the weight of the cross continually oppressing him." Strongbow's
effigy was broken in 1562, but it was repaired in 1570, by Sir Henry
Sidney. Until the middle of the last century, the Earl's tomb was a
regularly appointed place for the payment of bonds, rents, and bills of
exchange. A recumbent statue by his side is supposed to represent his
son, whom he is said to have cut in two with his sword, for cowardice in
flying from an engagement. A writer of the seventeenth century, however,
corrects this error, and says that "Strongbow did no more than run his
son through the belly, as appears by the monument and the
chronicle."—Gilbert's Dublin, vol. i. p. 113.

Warrior.—Hib. Expug. lib. ii. cap. 17.

Defeated.—Giraldus gives a detailed account of these
affairs.—Hib. Expug. lib. ii. cap. 17. He says the Irish forces under
Dunlevy amounted to ten thousand warriors; but this statement cannot at
all be credited. De Courcy took advantage of some old Irish prophecies
to further his cause. They were attributed to St. Columbkille, and to
the effect that a foreigner who would ride upon a white horse, and have
little birds painted on his shield, should conquer the country. De
Courcy did ride upon a white horse, and the birds were a part of his
armorial bearings.

Newry.—See an interesting note to the Annals (Four
Masters), vol. iii. p. 40, which identifies the valley of Glenree with
the vale of Newry. In an ancient map, the Newry river is called Owen
Glenree fluvius

General.—This is mentioned also by O'Flaherty, who
quotes from some other annals. See his account of Iar-Connaught, printed
for the Archæological Society.

Says.—Sylloge, ep. 48.

Lives.—We give authority for this statement, as it
manifests how completely the Holy See was deceived in supposing that any
reform was likely to be effected in Ireland by English interference:
"Ita ut quodam tempore (quod dictu mirum est) centum et quadraginta
presby. incontinentiæ convictos Romani miserit absolvendos."—Surius, t.
vi. St. Laurence had faculties for absolving these persons, but for some
reason—probably as a greater punishment—he sent them to Rome. English
writers at this period also complain of the relaxed state of
ecclesiastical discipline in that country. How completely all such evils
were eradicated by the faithful sons of the Church, and the exertions of
ecclesiastical superiors, is manifest from the fact, that no such
charges could be brought against even a single priest at the time of the
so-called Reformation.

Midnight.—"Itaque cum sextæ feriæ terminus advenisset,
in confinio sabbati subsequentis Spiritum Sancti viri requies æterna
suscepit."—Vita S. Laurentii, cap. xxxiii. The saint's memory is
still honoured at Eu. The church has been lately restored, and there is
a little oratory on the hill near it to mark the spot where he
exclaimed, Hoec est requies mea, as he approached the town where he
knew he should die. Dr. Kelly (Cambrensis Eversus, vol. ii. p. 648)
mentions in a note that the names of several Irishmen were inscribed

Fatal.—Dr. O'Donovan gives a long and most interesting
note on the genealogy of St. Laurence O'Toole, in which he shows that
his father was a chieftain of an important territory in the county
Kildare, and that he was not a Wicklow prince, as has been incorrectly
asserted. The family removed there after the death of St. Laurence, when
they were driven from their property by an English adventurer.

Conduct.—This is mentioned even by Cox, who, Dr.
O'Donovan observes, was always anxious to hide the faults of the
English, and vilify the Irish. He calls Hugh Tyrrell "a man of ill
report," and says he returned to Dublin "loaden both with curses and
extortions."—Hib. Angl. p. 38, ad an. 1184.

Accusation.—There can be no doubt that De Lacy had
ambitious designs. See Cambrensis, Hib. Expug. lib. ii. cap. 20. Henry
II. heard of his death with considerable satisfaction.

Colum-cille.—Dr. O'Donovan remarks that a similar
disaster befell Lord Norbury. He was also assassinated by a hand still
unknown, after having erected a castle on the same site as that of De
Lacy, and preventing the burial of the dead in the ancient cemetery of

King of Ireland.—During the reign of Richard all the
public affairs of the Anglo-Norman colony were transacted in the name of
"John, Lord of Ireland, Earl of Montague." Palgrave observes that John
never claimed to be King of the Irish; like Edward, who wrote himself
Lord of Scotland, and acknowledged Baliol to be King of the Scots.

Accounts.—Gilbert's Viceroys, p. 58.

FitzHenri.—His father was an illegitimate son of Henry
I. When a mere youth, FitzHenri came to Ireland with the Geraldines, and
obtained large possessions.

Pension.—One hundred pounds per annum. Orders
concerning it are still extant on the Close Rolls of England.—Rol.
Lit. Clau.
1833, 144. It is curious, and should be carefully noted, how
constantly proofs are appearing that the Irish bards and chroniclers,
from the earliest to the latest period, were most careful as to the
truth of their facts, though they may have sometimes coloured them
highly. Dr. O'Donovan has devoted some pages in a note (Four Masters,
vol. iii. p. 139) to the tales in the Book of Howth which record the
exploits of De Courcy. He appears satisfied that they were "invented in
the fifteenth or sixteenth century." Mr. Gilbert has ascertained that
they were placed on record as early as 1360, in Pembridge's Annals. As
they are merely accounts of personal valour, we do not reproduce them
here. He also gives an extract from Hoveden's Annals, pars port, p. 823,
which further supports the Irish account. Rapin gives the narrative as
history. Indeed, there appears nothing very improbable about it. The
Howth family were founded by Sir Almaric St. Lawrence, who married De
Courcy's sister.

Limerick.—We give an illustration, at the head of this
chapter, of King John's Castle, Limerick. Stanihurst says that King John
"was so pleased with the agreeableness of the city, that he caused a
very fine castle and bridge to be built there." This castle has endured
for more than six centuries. Richard I. granted this city a charter to
elect a Mayor before London had that privilege, and a century before it
was granted to Dublin. M'Gregor says, in his History of Limerick, that
the trade went down fearfully after the English invasion.—vol. ii. p.

Address.—Gilbert's Viceroys, p. 82, where the
address may be seen in extenso.

Year.—Four Masters, vol. iii. p. 227.

Carnfree.—This place has been identified by Dr.
O'Donovan. It is near the village of Tulsk, co. Roscommon. It was the
usual place of inauguration for the O'Connors. See note d, Annals,
vol. iii. p. 221.

Athlone.—This was one of the most important of the
English towns, and ranked next to Dublin at that period. We give an
illustration of the Castle of Athlone at the beginning of Chapter XX.
The building is now used for a barrack, which in truth is no great
deviation from its original purpose. It stands on the direct road from
Dublin to Galway, and protects the passage of the Shannon. There is a
curious representation on a monument here of an unfortunate English
monk, who apostatized and came to Ireland. He was sent to Athlone to
superintend the erection of the bridge by Sir Henry Sidney; but,
according to the legend, he was constantly pursued by a demon in the
shape of a rat, which never left him for a single moment. On one
occasion he attempted to preach, but the eyes of the animal glared on
him with such fury that he could not continue. He then took a pistol and
attempted to shoot it, but in an instant it had sprung on the weapon,
giving him, at the same time, a bite which caused his death. It is to be
presumed that this circumstance must have been well known, and generally
believed at the time, or it would not have been made a subject for the

Woman.—There are several versions of this story. The
Four Masters say he was killed "treacherously by the English." The
Annals of Clonmacnois say that "he came to an atonement with Geoffrey
March, and was restored to his kingdom," and that he was afterwards
treacherously killed by an Englishman, "for which cause the Deputy the
next day hanged the Englishman that killed him, for that foul fact." The
cause of the Englishman's crime was "meer jealousie," because O'Connor
had kissed his wife.

Cavalry.—Horse soldiery were introduced early into
Britain, through the Romans, who were famous for their cavalry.

Castle.—The Annals of Boyle contain a wonderful
account of the pirrels or engines constructed by the English for
taking this fortress.

Felim.—The Four Masters say, when writing of the act
of treachery mentioned above: "They all yearned to act treacherously
towards Felim, although he was the gossip of the Lord Justice."—Annals,
vol. iii. p. 285. He was sponsor or godfather to one of his children.

Life.—Annals, vol. iii. p. 189.

Christ.—Annals, vol. iii. p. 281.

Find.—Ib. vol. iii. p. 275.

Usher's Island.—This was once a fashionable resort.
Moira House stood here. It was ornamented so beautifully, that John
Wesley observed, when visiting Lady Moira, that one of the rooms was
more elegant than any he had seen in England. Here, in 1777, Charles Fox
was introduced to Grattan. Poor Pamela (Lady Edward FitzGerald) was at
Moira House on the evening of her husband's arrest; and here she heard
the fatal news on the following morning, her friends having concealed it
from her until then. In 1826 it was converted into a mendicity
institution, and all its ornamental portions removed.

Defeated.—O'Neill's bard, MacNamee, wrote a lament for
the chieftains who fell in this engagement. He states that the head of
"O'Neill, King of Tara, was sent to London;" and attributes the defeat
of the Irish to the circumstance of their adversaries having fought in
coats-of-mail, while they had only satin shirts:—

"Unequal they entered the battle,
The Galls and the Irish of Tara;

Fair satin shirts on the race of Conn,
The Galls in one mass of iron."

He further deplores the removal of the chief's noble face from Down,
lamenting that his resurrection should not be from amongst the
limestone-covered graves of the fathers of his clan at Armagh.

MacCarthy.—Four Masters, vol. iii. p. 389.

Ulster.—The Annals of Innisfallen say he obtained this
title in 1264, after his marriage with Maud, daughter of Hugh de Lacy
the younger.

Ladies.—"Tantz bele dames ne vi en fossée,
Mult fu cil en bon sire née,

Re purreit choisir à sa volonté."

Clergy.—"E les prestres, quant on chanté,
Si vont ovrir au fossé,

E travellent mut durement,
Plus qe ne funt autre gent."

This ballad has been published, with a translation by W. Crofton

Crime.—We really must enter a protest against the way
in which Irish history is written by some English historians. In
Wright's History of Ireland we find the following gratuitous assertion
offered to excuse De Clare's crime: "Such a refinement of cruelty must have arisen from a suspicion of treachery, or from some other grievous
offence with which we are not acquainted." If all the dark deeds of
history are to be accounted for in this way, we may bid farewell to
historical justice. And yet this work, which is written in the most
prejudiced manner, has had a far larger circulation in Ireland than Mr.
Haverty's truthful and well-written history. When Irishmen support such
works, they must not blame their neighbours across the Channel for
accepting them as truthful histories.

Shooting.—Four Masters, vol. iii. p. 435. These
champions appear to have been very famous. They are mentioned in the
Annals of Ulster and in the Annals of Clonmacnois, with special
commendations for their skill. The following year O'Dowda was killed by
Adam Cusack. It is hoped that he is not the same person as "the Cusack"
whom he had assisted just before.

Horses.—As votaries of the turf maybe interested in
knowing the appellations of equine favourites in the thirteenth century,
we subjoin a sample of their names: Lynst, Jourdan, Feraunt de Trim,
Blanchard de Londres, Connetable, Obin the Black, &c.

Progress.—The following passage is taken from a work
published a few years ago. It is not a work of any importance, but it
had some circulation in its day; and like many other works then
published, was calculated to do immense mischief, by quoting the false
statements of Cambrensis as authority, and by giving grotesque sketches
of Irish character, which were equally untrue. The writer says: "They
[the Irish chieftains] opposed the introduction of English law, because
they had a direct interest in encouraging murder and theft." The fact
was, as we have shown, that the Irish did their best to obtain the
benefit of English law; but the English nobles who ruled Ireland would
not permit it, unquestionably "because they had a direct interest
encouraging murder and theft."

Calculating.—We derived the word from calculus, a
white stone, the Romans having used small white stones for arithmetical
purposes. Probably they taught this custom to the aboriginal English,
whose descendants retained it long after.

Notched.—Quite as primitive an arrangement as the quipus, and yet used in a condition of society called civilized.

Salary.—The value may be estimated by the current
price of provisions: cows from 5s. to 13s. 4d. each; heifers, 3s. 4d. to
5s.; sheep, 8d. to 1s.; ordinary horses, 13s. 4d. to 40s.; pigs, 1s. 6d.
to 2s.; salmon, 6d. each; wheat, corn, and malt varied with the produce
of the season. Most of the details given above have been taken from Mr.
Gilbert's Viceroys.

Carbury.—Extensive ruins still mark the site.

Oppression.—The original Latin is preserved by Fordun.
Translations may be found in the Abbé MacGeoghegan's History of
, p. 323, and in Plowden's Historical Review. We append one
clause, in which these writers complain of the corruption of manners
produced by intercourse with the English settlers: "Quod sancta et
columbina ejus simplicitas, ex eorum cohabitatione et exemplo reprobo,
in serpentinam calliditatem mirabiliter est mutata."

Effect.—See Theiner, Vet. Man. Hiber. et Scot. p.
188, for the efforts made by the Holy See to procure peace. The Pope's
letter to Edward III. will be found at p. 206. It is dated Avinione,
iii. Kal. Junii, Pontificatus nostri anno secundo.

Prisoners.—Gilbert's Viceroys, p. 138.

Subject.—History of Dundalk, pp. 46-58.

Carte.—See his Life of the Duke of Ormonde, folio
edition, p. 7.

Ormonde.—The name Ormonde is intended to represent the
Irish appellative Ur-Mhumhain, or Eastern Munster. This part of the
country was the inheritance of Cairbré Musc.

Palatine.—The Lords-Palatine were endowed with
extraordinary power, and were able to exercise a most oppressive tyranny
over the people under their government.

Execution.—Bermingham was related to De Lucy, which
perhaps induced him to deal more harshly with him. De Lucy's Viceroyalty
might otherwise have been popular, as he had won the affections of the
people by assisting them during a grievous famine. See page 329 for an
illustration of the scene of this tragedy.

Carrickfergus.—See illustration at the commencement of
this chapter.

Elizabeth.—This lady was married to Lionel, third son
of Edward III., in 1352. This prince was created in her right Earl of
Ulster. The title and estates remained in possession of different
members of the royal family, until they became the special inheritance
of the crown in the reign of Edward IV.

Coigne and livery.—This was an exaction of money,
food, and entertainment for the soldiers, and fodder for their horses. A
tax of a similar kind existed among the ancient Irish; but it was part
of the ordinary tribute paid to the chief, and therefore was not
considered an exaction.

Unsuccessful.—Ireland, Historical and Statistical,
vol. i. p. 200.

Law.—Irish History and Irish Character, p. 69.

Favour.—Ibid. p. 70.

Irish law.—A considerable amount of testimony might be
produced to prove that the Irish were and are peculiarly a law-loving
people; but, in the words of the writer above-quoted, "a people cannot
be expected to love and reverence oppression, because it is consigned to
a statute-book, and called law."—p. 71. The truth is, that it was and
is obviously the interest of English writers to induce themselves to
believe that Irish discontent and rebellion were caused by anything or
everything but English oppression and injustice. Even in the present day
the Irish are supposed to be naturally discontented and rebellious,
because they cannot submit silently to be expelled from their farms
without any compensation or any other means of support, either from
political or religious motives, and because they object to maintain a
religion contrary to their conscience, and which is admitted by its own
members to be "clearly a political evil." See concluding remarks in Mr.
Goldwin Smith's interesting little volume.

Inferior.—While these sheets were passing through the
press, we chanced to meet the following paragraph in an English paper.
The article was headed "International Courtesy," apropos of the affair
at Dinan:—"Prince John pulling the beards of the Irish chiefs is the
aggravated type of a race which alienated half a continent by treating
its people as colonial, and which gave India every benefit but civility,
till Bengal showed that it was strong, and Bombay that it could be
rich," And yet it would be quite as unjust to accuse a whole nation of
habitual insolence to foreigners and dependents, as to blame every
Englishman, in the reigns of John or Richard, for the insults offered to
the Irish nation.

Cows.—"Un cheval ot sans sele ne arcon,

Qui lui avint consté, ce disoit-on,
Quatre cens vaches, tant estoil bel et bon."

Them.—Gilbert's Viceroys, p. 292.

Annals.—Four Masters, vol. iv. p. 791.

Master.—Gilbert's Viceroys, p. 347.

Shave.—There are no monumental effigies of Henry VI.
His remains were removed several times by Richard III., who was annoyed
at the popular belief that he worked miracles; but the costume of the
period may be studied in an engraving by Strutt, from a scene depicted
in the Royal M.S., 15E 6, which represents Talbot in the act of
presenting a volume of romances to the King and Queen. Henry was
notoriously plain in his dress, but his example was not followed by his
court. Fairholt says: "It would appear as if the English nobility and
gentry sought relief in the invention of all that was absurd in apparel,
as a counter-excitement to the feverish spirit engendered by civil
war."—History of Costume, p. 146.

Soul.—Duald Mac Firbis.—Annals.

History.—The scene is laid at the Abbey of Bury. A Poste enters and exclaims—

"Poste.—Great lords, from Ireland am I come amain,

To signify that rebels there are up,
And put the Englishmen unto the sword.
Send succours (lords), and stop the rage betime,
Before the wound do grow uncurable;
For being green, there is great hope of help."

—King Henry VI. Part ii. Act 3.

People.—"I twise bore rule in Normandy and Fraunce,
And last lieutenant in Ireland, where my hart
Found remedy for every kinde of smart;

For through the love my doings there did breede,
I had my helpe at all times in my neede."

Mirrour for Magistrates, vol. ii. p. 189.

Hall, in his Union of the Two Noble Houses (1548), wrote that York
"got him such love and favour of the country [Ireland] and the
inhabitants, that their sincere love and friendly affection could never
be separated from him and his lineage."

Hobbies.—Irish horses were famous from an early period
of our history. They were considered presents worthy of kings. The name hobbies is a corruption of hobilarius, a horseman. It is probable
the term is derived from the Spanish caballo, a horse. There were
three different Irish appellations for different kinds of horses, groidh, each, and gearran. These words are still in use, but capall is the more common term.

Book.—This ancient MS. is still in existence, in the
Bodleian Library in Oxford (Laud, 610). It is a copy of such portions of
the Psalter of Cashel as could then be deciphered, which was made for
Butler, by Shane O'Clery, A.D. 1454. There is an interesting memorandum
in it in Irish, made by MacButler himself: "A blessing on the soul of
the Archbishop of Cashel, i.e., Richard O'Hedigan, for it was by him the
owner of this book was educated. This is the Sunday before Christmas;
and let all those who shall read this give a blessing on the souls of

Ireland.—The Annals of Ulster, compiled by Maguire,
Canon of Armagh, who died A.D. 1498.

London.—The Irish Yorkists declared that this youth
was a counterfeit. The Earl of Lincoln, son of Elizabeth Plantagenet,
sister of Richard III., saw and conversed with the boy at the court at
Shene, and appeared to be convinced that he was not his real cousin, for
he joined the movement in favour of Simnel immediately after the
interview. Mr. Gilbert remarks in his Viceroys, p. 605, that the fact
of all the documents referring to this period of Irish history having
been destroyed, has been quite overlooked. A special Act of Poyning's
Parliament commanded the destruction of all "records, processes,
ordinances, &c., done in the 'Laddes' name."

Authority.—Gilbert's Viceroys, p. 605. The English
Parliament attainted those English gentlemen and nobles who had fought
against the King at Stoke, but they took no notice of the English in
Ireland, who were the real promoters of the rebellion. This is a curious
and valuable illustration of the state of affairs in that country.

Firing it.—A valuable paper on this subject, by Sir
S.R. Meyrick, will be found in the Archæologia, vol. xxii. The people
of Lucca are supposed to have been the first to use hand-cannons, at the
beginning of the fifteenth century. Cannon-balls were first made of
stone, but at the battle of Cressy the English "shot small balls of
iron." For popular information on this subject, see Fairholt, History
of Costume

Ordnance.—In 1489 six hand-guns or musquets were sent
from Germany to the Earl of Kildare, which his guard bore while on
sentry at Thomas Court, his Dublin residence. The word "Pale" came to be
applied to that part of Ireland occupied by the English, in consequence
of one of the enactments of Poyning's Parliament, which required all the
colonists to "pale" in or enclose that portion of the country possessed
by the English.

Butts.—We give an illustration, at the head of this
chapter, of the Butts' Cross, Kilkenny.

War-cries.—That of the Geraldines of Kildare was Cromadh-abu, from Croom Castle, in Limerick; the war-cry of the
Desmond Geraldines was Seanaid-abu, from Shannid Castle.

Expensive.—English writers accuse Henry of miserable
avariciousness. He is accused of having consented to the execution of
Sir William Stanley, who had saved his life, for the sake of his
enormous wealth.—Lingard's History of England, vol. v. p. 308. He is
also accused, by a recent writer, of having seized the Wealth of the
Queen Dowager, because he chose to believe that she had assisted
Simnel.—Victoria History of England, p. 223.

Ireland.—On one occasion, when the Earl and Sir James
Ormonde had a quarrel, the latter retired into the chapter-house of St.
Patrick's Cathedral, the door of which he closed and barricaded. The
Earl requested him to come forth, and pledged his honour for his safety.
As the knight still feared treachery, a hole was cut in the door,
through which Kildare passed his hand; and after this exploit, Ormonde
came out, and they embraced each other.

Persecution.—Smith's Ireland Hist. and Statis. vol.
i. p. 327.

Doom.—See The Earls of Kildare, vol. i. p. 106, for
Wolsey's reasons for not removing him from the Viceroyalty,
notwithstanding his dislike.

Ally.—He was charged with having written a letter to
O'Carroll of Ely, in which he advised him to keep peace with the Pale
until a Deputy should come over, and then to make war on the English.
The object of this advice is not very clear.

Salus Populi.—There is a copy of this book in MS. in
the British Museum. The name of the author is not known.

Letter.—The deposition accusing Kildare is printed in
the "State Papers," part iii. p. 45. The following is an extract from
the translation which it gives of his letter to O'Carroll. The original
was written in Irish: "Desiring you to kepe good peas to English men
tyll an English Deputie come there; and when any English Deputie shall
come thydder, doo your beste to make warre upon English men there,
except suche as bee towardes mee, whom you know well your silf."

Pierse Butler.—Called by the Irish, Red Pierse. Leland
gives a curious story about him. He was at war with MacGillapatrick, who
sent an ambassador to Henry VIII. to complain of the Earl's proceedings.
The messenger met the English King as he was about to enter the royal
chapel, and addressed him thus: "Stop, Sir King! my master,
Gillapatrick, has sent me to thee to say, that if thou wilt not punish
the Red Earl he will make war on thee." Pierse resigned his title in
favour of Sir Thomas Boleyn, in 1527, and was created Earl of Ossory;
but after the death of the former he again took up the old title, and
resigned the new.

Spared.—It is quite evident from the letter of the
Council to Henry VIII. (State Papers, ciii.), that a promise was made.
Henry admits it, and regrets it in his letter to Skeffington (S.P.
cvi.): "The doyng whereof [FitzGerald's capture], albeit we accept it
thankfully, yet, if he had been apprehended after such sorte as was
convenable to his deservynges, the same had been muche more thankfull
and better to our contentacion."

Already.—Mant describes him as a man "whose mind was
happily freed from the thraldom of Popery," before his
appointment.—History of the Church of Ireland, vol. i. p. 111.

Houses.—Lingard, vol. vi. p. 203.

Charges.—Mr. Froude has adopted this line with
considerable ability, in his History of England. He has collected
certain statements, which he finds in the books of the Consistory
Courts, and gives details from these cases which certainly must "shock
his readers" considerably, as he expects. He leaves it to be implied
that, as a rule, ecclesiastics lived in open immorality. He gives names
and facts concerning the punishment of priests for vicious lives
(History of England, vol. i. pp. 178-180); and asserts that their
offences were punished lightly, while another measure was dealt out to
seculars. He might as well select the cases of scandal given by
Protestant clergymen in modern times from the law books, and hold them
up as specimens of the lives of all their brethren. The cases were
exceptions; and though they do prove, what is generally admitted, that
the moral condition of the clergy was not all that could be desired in
individual cases, they also prove that such cases were exceptional, and
that they were condemned by the Church, or they would not have been
punished. With regard to the punishment, we can scarcely call it a light
penance for a priest to be compelled to go round the church barefoot,
to kneel at each altar and recite certain prayers, and this while High
Mass was singing. It was a moral disgrace, and keener than a corporal
punishment. The writer also evidently misunderstands the Catholic
doctrine of absolution, when he says that a fine of six-and-eightpence
was held sufficient penalty for a mortal sin.

Ancestors.—See the Phoenix, a collection of valuable
papers, published in London, 1707; and the Harleian Miscellany, &c.

Rome.—This was the invariable practice of the Irish
Church. It will be remembered how letters and expostulations had been
sent to the Holy See in regard to the temporal oppressions of the
English settlers.

Davies.—Cause why Ireland was never Subdued.—Thorn's
Reprints, vol. i. p. 694.

More.-Sir Thomas More's son-in-law, Roper, gives the
following account of his condemnation: "Mr. Rich, pretending friendly
talk with him, among other things of a set course, said this unto him:
'Admit there were, sir, an Act of Parliament that the realm should take
me for king; would not you, Master More, take me for King?' 'Yes, sir,'
quoth Sir Thomas More, 'that I would.' 'I put the case further,' quoth
Mr. Rich, 'that there were an Act of Parliament that all the realm
should take me for Pope; would not you then, Master More, take me for
Pope?' 'For answer, sir,' quoth Sir Thomas More, 'to your first case,
the Parliament may well, Master Rich, meddle with the state of temporal
princes; but to make answer to your other case, I will put you this
case. Suppose the Parliament should make a law that God should not be
God, would you then, Master Rich, say that God were not God?' 'No, sir,'
quoth he, 'that I would not, sith no Parliament may make any such law.'
'No more,' quoth Sir Thomas More, 'could the Parliament make the King
supreme head of the Church.' Upon whose only report was Sir Thomas
indicted for high treason on the statute to deny the King to be supreme
head of the Church, into which indictment were put these heinous
words—maliciously, traitorously, and diabolically."

Parliament.—State Papers, vol. ii. p. 437.

Vote.—Irish Statutes, 28th Henry VIII. c. xii.

Succession.—Froude, vol. i. p. 94. He also quotes Hall
to the effect that "all indifferent and discreet persons judged that it
was right and necessary." Persons who were "indifferent" enough to think
that any reason could make a sin necessary, or "discreet" enough to mind
losing their heads or their property, were generally of that opinion.
But Henry's difficulties in divorcing his wife are a matter of history.

Saw it,—Four Masters, vol. v. p. 1445.

Trinidad.—Madrid, 1714.

Truly.—State Papers, vol. iii. p. 108.

Use.—28th Henry VIII. cap. xvi. In Shirley's Original
, p. 31, we find the following order from the Lord Protector,
Somerset, to the Dean of St. Patrick's: "Being advertised that one
thousand ounces of plate of crosses and such like things remaineth in
the hands of you, we require you to deliver the same to be employed to
his Majesty's use," &c. He adds that the Dean is to receive "£20 in
ready money" for the safe keeping of the same.

Order.—The original letter may be seen in Shirley, pp.
41, 42.

Heretics.—Annals, vol. v. p. 1493.

Service.—Shirley's Original Letters, p. 47. Dr.
Browne gives an account of his signal failures in attempting to
introduce the Protestant form of prayer in his letters to Cromwell. He
says one prebendary of St. Patrick's "thought scorn to read them." He
adds: "They be in a manner all the same point with me. There are
twenty-eight of them, and yet scarce one that favoureth God's
Word."—State Papers, vol. iii. p. 6.

Pertinacity.—The Victoria History of England, p.

Pope.—Lib. Mun. Hib. part i. p. 37.

Captivity.—Lord Chancellor Cusack addressed a very
curious "Book on the State of Ireland" to the Duke of Northumberland, in
1552, in which he mentions the fearful condition of the northern
counties. He states that "the cause why the Earl was detained [in Dublin
Castle] was for the wasting and destroying of his county." This Sir
Thomas Cusack, who took a prominent part in public affairs during the
reign of Queen Elizabeth, was a son of Thomas Cusack, of Cassington, in
Meath, an ancient Norman-Irish family, who were hereditary seneschals
and sheriffs of that county.—Ulster Arch. Jour. vol. iii p. 51.

People.—The Irish Reformation, by the Rev. W. Maziere
Brady, D.D., fifth edition, pp. 32, 33.

Creed.—Cambrensis Eversus, vol. iii. p. 19.

Book.—Orationes et Motiva, p. 87.

Date.—Analecta, p. 387.

Dr. Moran.—Archbishops of Dublin, p. 68. Further
information may be obtained also in Curry's Historical Review.

Clergyman.—The Rev. W. Maziere Brady, D.D. Mr. Froude
remarks, in his History of England, vol. x. p. 480: "There is no
evidence that any of the bishops in Ireland who were in office at Queen
Mary's death, with the exception of Curwin, either accepted the Reformed
Prayer-Book, or abjured the authority of the Pope." He adds, in a
foot-note: "I cannot express my astonishment at a proposition maintained
by Bishop Mant and others, that whole hierarchy of Ireland went over to
the Reformation with the Government. In a survey of the country supplied
to Cecil in 1571, after death and deprivation had enabled the Government
to fill several sees, the Archbishops Armagh, Tuam, and Cashel, with
almost every one of the Bishops of the respective provinces, are
described as Catholici et Confederati. The Archbishop of Dublin, with
the Bishops of Kildare, Ossory, and Ferns, are alone returned as

Withal.—Shirley, Original Letters, p. 194.

Traitors.—Letter of October 18, 1597.—State Paper

Law.—Letter to the Queen, in Government of Ireland
under Sir John Parrot
, p.4.

Thumbs.—Despatch of Castlerosse, in State Paper
Office, London.

Swords.—O'Sullivan Beare, Hist. Cath. p. 238.

Mothers.—Ibid. p. 99.

Them.—Hist. Cath. p.133.

Army.—See Dr. Stuart's History of Armagh, p. 261.

Style.—In one of the communications from Sussex to
O'Neill, he complains of the chieftain's letters as being "nimis
superbe scriptæ
."—State Papers for 1561.

May.—Moore's History of Ireland, vol. iv. p.33.

Denied.—This document has been printed in the Ulster
Arch. Jour
. vol. ii, p.221, but the editor does not mention where the
original was procured.

Englishman.—Moore, vol. iv. p. 37, has "like a
gentleman," but the above is the correct reading. In 1584 Sir J. Perrot
tried to get the Irish chieftains to attend Parliament clothed in the
English fashion, and even offered them robes and cloaks of velvet and
satin. The chieftains objected; the Lord Deputy insisted. At last one of
them, with exquisite humour, suggested that if he were obliged to wear
English robes, a Protestant minister should accompany him attired in
Irish garments, so that the mirth and amazement of the People should be
fairly divided between them.—Sir J. Perrot's Life, p.198.

Cusack.—One reason, perhaps, was that the Chancellor
always treated O'Neill with the respect due from one gentleman to
another. Flemyng mentions, in a letter to Cecil, November 29, 1563, that
O'Neill told him, when about to take the oaths of his people to an
agreement with the Queen, that "Cusack did not give them their oath so, but let me give them their oath."

Willing.—Sidney's Despatches, British Museum, MSS.
Cat. Titus B. x.

Irreligion.—Mant, vol. i. p.287.

Scattered.—Cox, vol. i. p.319.

Civility.—Sidney's Letters and Memorials, vol i.
p.112. Sidney's memoir has been published in extenso in the Ulster
Arch. Journal
, with most interesting notes by Mr. Hore of Wexford.

Reformation.—Past and Present Policy of England
towards Ireland
, p. 27. London, 1845.

Depend.—Shirley, p. 219. An admirable History of the
Diocese of Meath
, in two volumes, has been published lately by the Rev.
A. Cogan, Catholic Priest of Navan. It is very much to be wished that
this rev. author would extend his charitable labours to other dioceses
throughout Ireland.

Majority.—Leland, vol. ii. p.241.

Pike.—This was probably the Morris pike or Moorish
, much used in the reign of Henry VIII and Elizabeth. The common
pike was used very generally by foot soldiers until the reign of George
II. The halberd was introduced during the reign of Henry VIII. It was
peculiar to the royal guard, and is still carried by them. In Shirley's
comedy, A Bird in a Cage (1633), one of the characters is asked, "You
are one of the guard?" and replies, "A Poor halberd man, sir." The
caliver was quite recently introduced. It was a light kind of musket,
fired without a rest. It derived its name from the calibre or width of
its bore.

Staffe.—This was probably a cane staff. We read in Piers Plowman's Vision of "hermits on a heap with hookyd staves."

Dagges.—"Pistols."—"My dagge was levelled at his

Livery—It was usual for all retainers of a noble house
to wear a uniform-coloured cloth in dress. Thus, in the old play of Sir
Thomas More
, we find:

"That no man whatsoever
Do walk without the livery of his lord,
Either in cloak or any other garment."

Irish.—Four Masters, vol. v. pp. 1678-9. Camden
mentions the capture of O'Neill, and says Essex slew 200 of his men; but
he does not mention the treachery with which this massacre was

Pestilence.—Memoir or Narrative addressed to Sir
Francis Walsingham, 1583. Ware says he wrote "Miscellanies of the
Affairs of Ireland," but the MS. has not yet been discovered. The Four
Masters notice the pestilence, which made fearful ravages.

John.—He was called Shane Seamar Oge, or John of the
Shamrocks, from having threatened to live on shamrocks sooner than
submit to the English. John was the younger of the two De Burgos or

Vileness.—Reign of Elizabeth, vol. i, p. 458.

Humanity.—Dr. O'Donovan, with his usual conscientious
accuracy, has given a long and most interesting note on the subject of
this massacre, in the Annals of the Four Masters, vol. v.p. 1695.
Dowling is the oldest writer who mentions the subject, and he expressly
mentions Crosby and Walpole as the principal agents in effecting it. Dr.
O'Donovan gives a curious traditional account of the occurrence, in
which several Catholic families are accused of having taken part.

Den.—Faerie Queene, book iii c. 3.

Disorders.—"In many dioceses in England (A.D. 1561), a
third of the parishes were left without a clergyman, resident or
non-resident.... The children grew up unbaptized; the dead buried their
dead." Elizabeth had to remonstrate with Parliament upon the "open
decays and ruins" of the churches. "They were not even kept commonly
clean, and nothing was done to make them known to be places provided for
divine service." "The cathedral plate adorned the prebendal sideboards
and dinner-tables. The organ pipes were melted into dishes for their
kitchens. The organ frames were carved into bedsteads, where the wives
reposed beside their reverend lords. The copes and vestments were slit
into gowns and bodices. Having children to provide for, the chapters cut
down their woods, and worked their fines ... for the benefit of their
own generation." "The priests' wives were known by their dress in the
street, and their proud gait, from a hundred other women."—Froude, Reign of Elizabeth, vol. i. pp. 465-467.

Dr. Saunders.—He has given a full and most interesting
account of this expedition, in a letter to the Roman court. The original
has been printed by Monsignor Moran, in his Archbishops, a work which
every reader should possess.

Dr. Allen.—He was a medical man, and was killed in an
engagement immediately after the arrival of the expedition.

Camp.—Dr. Saunders' letter, Moran's Archbishops, p.

Official.—Lord Grey says, in his official despatch to
the Queen, dated "From the camp before Smerwick, November 12, 1580:" "I
sent streighte certeyne gentlemen to see their weapons and armouries
laid down, and to guard the munition and victual, then left, from spoil; then put in certeyne bandes, who streighte fell to execution. There
were 600 slayn
." After this exploit, "Grey's faith"—Graia
—became proverbial even on the Continent. Grey appears to have a
touch of the Puritan (by anticipation) in his composition, for we find
him using very unctuous language about one John Cheeke, who "so wrought
in him God's Spirit, plainlie declairing him a child of His elected;"

and he calls the Pope "a detestable shaveling." Raleigh is said to have
had the execution of this butchery; his friend, Spenser, was "not far
off," according to his own account. He has attempted to excuse his
patron, Lord Grey, but his excuse simply shows that the massacre was
reprobated by all persons not destitute of common humanity.

Castle.—The Four Masters give a detailed account of
this treachery, taken from the life of Hugh Roe O'Donnell, which was
written by one of themselves. A copy of this work, in the handwriting of
Edward O'Reilly, is still preserved in the Library of the Royal Irish

Him.—This document was written by Captain Lee, and
presented to the Queen in 1594. It is printed in Desiderata Curiosa
, vol. ii. p. 91.

Deputy.—Four Masters, vol. vi. p. 1878. The State
Papers clearly prove the Deputy's guilt.

Hanged.—It was usual to hang the Franciscans by their
own cord, or to tie them together with their cords and hurl them from
the summit of a tower or from a high rock into the sea.

Behalf.—The Four Masters give copious details of this
important engagement, which O'Donovan has supplemented with copious
notes, vol. vi. pp.2061-2075.

Victories.—The victory of the Blackwater was hailed
with salvos of artillery from S. Angelo. The Pope and Philip III. of
Spain corresponded with O'Neill constantly, the one about the affairs of
the Church, the other with generous offers of assistance. At one time
the Emperor sent him 22,000 crowns of gold.

Long—Dunboy and other Poems, by T.D. Sullivan, Esq.

Place—Hibernia Pacata, vol. ii. p. 559.

Life.—Hib. Pac. vol. ii. p. 578.

Disaffection.—Dr. Moran quotes a letter from Dublin,
written 26th Feb., 1603, which says that he imparted great edification
to the faithful by his constancy, and that the whole city of Cork
accompanied him with its tears.

Rebels.—Commission from the Lord Deputy to
Harvey.—See the document in extenso, Hib, Pac. vol ii. p. 447.

Pain.—Hib. Pac. p. 659.

Followers.—The father and mother of the celebrated
historian, O'Sullivan were amongst the number of those who reached
Leitrim in safety. Philip, the author, had been sent to Spain while a
boy in 1602, for his education: the whole family joined him there soon
after. Dr. O'Donovan is not correct in his genealogy. It is well known
that the real representative of the family is Murtough O'Sullivan, Esq.,
of Clohina, co. Cork.

Presinct.—History of the University of Dublin, by
W.B.S. Taylor. London, 1845.

Fortunes.—Smith's History of Kerry, vol. ii. p. 97.

Papists.—Oliver's Collections, quoted by Dr. Moran,
p. 250.

World.—Dr. Rothe, quoted by Monsignor Moran, p. 251.

Writing.—The original is in the Cot. Col. British

Tully Castle.—See heading of this chapter.

Adultery.—MS. History, by Rev. A. Stuart, quoted in
Reid's History of the Presbyterian Church, vol. i. p. 96.

Lectured. The address of the Irish party to James is
given in O'Sullivan Beare's History, p. 316, and also the King's
reply, p. 323. A collection made throughout Ireland to defray the
expenses of the delegates.

Puritan—Plowden's History of Ireland, vol. i. p.
338. "By his management and contrivance, he provided the whole doctrine
of Calvin to be received as the public belief of the Protestant Church
of Ireland, and ratified by Chichester in the King's name." Chichester
himself was a thorough Puritan, and a disciple of Cartwright, who used
to pray, "O Lord, give us grace and power as one man to set ourselves
against them" (the bishops).

Franciscan.—An account of the sufferings of the
Franciscans will be found in St. Francis and the Franciscans. The Poor
Clares, who are the Second Order of St. Francis, were refounded and
established in Ireland, by Sir John Dillon's sister, about this time,
and suffered severe persecutions. Miss Dillon, the Abbess, was brought
before the Lord Deputy; but her quiet dignity made such impression on
the court, that she was dismissed without molestation for the time.

From me.—Stafford's State Letters, vol. i. p. 331.

Sovereign.—Strafford's Letters, vol. ii. p. 241.

Means.—This curious document was first published in
the Nation of February 5th, 1859.

Them.—Castlehaven's Memoirs, p, 28.

Frolics.—Carte's Ormonde, vol. i. p. 245, folio

Guard.—Castlehaven's Memoirs, p. 30. Coote's
cruelties are admitted on all sides to have been most fearful. Leland
speaks of "his ruthless and indiscriminate carnage."—History of
, vol. iii. p. 146. Warner says "he was a stranger to
mercy."—History of the Irish Rebellion, p. 135. "And yet this was the
man," says Lord Castlehaven, "whom the Lords Justices picked out to
entrust with a commission of martial-law, which he performed with
delight, and with a wanton kind of cruelty."

Granted.—This most important and interesting document
may be seen in O'Sullivan's Hist. Cath. p. 121. It is headed: "Gregory
XIII., to the Archbishops, Bishops, and other prelates, as also to the
Catholic Princes, Earls, Barons, Clergy, Nobles, and People of Ireland,
health and apostolic benediction." It is dated: "Given at Rome, the 13th
day of May, 1580, the eighth of our pontificate."

Cause.—See illustration at head of this chapter.

Rinuccini,—A work was published in Florence, 1844,
entitled Nunziatura in Irlanda, di M. Gio. Battista Rinuccini, &c.
This work, which only forms a portion of the Rinuccini MS., throws much
valuable light upon the history of the period. It is supposed to have
been written by the Dean of Fermo, who attended the Nuncio during his
official visit to Ireland. This volume also contains, in the original
Italian, the report presented by Rinuccini to the Pope on his return
from Ireland. Burke has given some extracts from the MS. in his Hibernia Dominicana, and Carte mentions it also; but otherwise these
very important documents appear to have been quite overlooked.

Since the publication of the first edition of this work, I have obtained
a copy of a translation of the Nuncio's narrative, which appeared in the Catholic Miscellany for 1829. This translation was made by a
Protestant clergyman, from a Latin translation of the original, in the
possession of Mr. Coke, of Holham, Norfolk. The Nuncio's account is one
of great importance, but it would demand considerable space if treated
of in detail. There was a very able article on the subject in the Dublin Review for March, 1845.

Hut.—Some extracts from a curious and interesting
letter, describing the voyage from France and the landing in Ireland of
Rinuccini and his party, were published in the Dublin Review for
March, 1845. It is addressed to Count Thomas Rinuccini, but the writer
is supposed to have been the Dean of Fermo. He gives a graphic
description of their arrival at Kenmare—"al porto di Kilmar" and of the
warm reception they met from the poor, and their courtesy—"La cortesia
di quei poveri popoli dove Monsignor capito, fu incomparabile." He also
says: "Gran cosa, nelle montagne e luoghi rozzi, e gente povera per le
devastazioni fatte dei nemici eretici, trovai pero la nobilta della S.
fede Catolica, giaché auro vi fu uomo, o donna, o ragazzo, ancor che
piccolo, che non me sapesse recitar il Pater, Ave, Credo, e i
commandamenti della Santa Chiesa." "It is most wonderful that in this
wild and mountainous place, and a people so impoverished by the
heretical enemy, I found, nevertheless, the noble influence of the holy
Catholic faith; for there was not a man or woman, or a child however
young, who could not repeat the Our Father, Hail Mary, Creed, and the
commands of Holy Church." We believe the same might be said at the
present day of this part of Ireland. It is still as poor, and the people
are still as well instructed in and as devoted to their faith now as in
that century.

Freemen.—Confederation of Kilkenny, p. 117.

Army,—Nunziatura in Irlanda, p. 391.

Trim For an illustration of this castle, see p. 560.

Bibles.—See The Cromwellian Settlement of Ireland,
by John P. Prendergast, Esq.—a most important work, and one which
merits the careful consideration of all who wish to understand this
period of Irish history, and one of the many causes of Irish
disaffection. The scythes and sickles were to the corn, that the Irish
might be starved if they could not be conquered.

Quarter.—Cromwell says, in his letters, that quarter
was not promised; Leland and Carte say that it was.

Tale.—Cromwell's Letters and Speeches, vol. i. p.
456. The simplicity with which Carlyle attempts to avert the just
indignation of the Irish, by saying that the garrison "consisted mostly
of Englishmen," coupled with his complacent impression that eccentric
phrases can excuse crime, would be almost amusing were it not that he
admits himself to be as cruel as his hero.—vol. i. p. 453. A man who
can write thus is past criticism. If the garrison did consist mainly of
Englishmen, what becomes of the plea, that this barbarity was a just
vengeance upon the Irish for the "massacre."

Allowed of.—Letters and Speeches, vol. i. p. 477.

Protection.—Dr. French, the Catholic Bishop of Ferns,
has given an account of the storming of Wexford, in a letter to the
Papal Nuncio, in which he states that the soldiers were not content with
simply murdering their victims, but used "divers sorts of torture." As
he was then in the immediate neighbourhood, he had every opportunity of
being correctly informed. Cromwell must have sanctioned this, if he did
not encourage it.

Bribe.—40,000 golden crowns, and free leave to
emigrate where he chose.—Hib. Dom. p. 448.

Lamb..—Cromwellian Settlement, p. 16. See also
Petty's Political Anatomy of Ireland.

Abroad.—The Prince of Orange declared they were born
soldiers. Sir John Norris said that he "never beheld so few of any
country as of Irish that were idiots or cowards," Henry IV. of France
said that Hugh O'Neill was the third soldier of the age; and declared
that no nation had such resolute martial men.—Cromwellian Settlement,
p. 22.

Sanction.—See Cromwellian Settlement, p. 61, for a
specimen of the "Bible stuff with which they crammed their heads and
hardened their hearts."

Day.—Cromwellian Settlement, p. 163.

Murder.—"Whenever any unwary person chanced to pass
these limits he was knocked on the head by the first officer or soldier
who met him. Colonel Astell killed six women in this way."—Ibid. p.

Hiberniæ.—The Wail of the Irish Catholics; or, Groans
of the Whole Clergy and People, &c.
By Father Maurice Morison, of the
Minors of Strict Observance, an eyewitness of these cruelties. Insbruck,
A.D. 1659. This religious had remained in Ireland, like many of his
brethren, in such complete disguise, that their existence was not even
suspected. In order to minister the more safely to their afflicted
people, they often hired as menials in Protestant families and thus, in
a double sense, became the servants of all men. Father Maurice was in
the household of Colonel Ingolsby, the Parliamentary Governor of

Prendergast.—Cromwellian Settlement, p. 34. We can
only recommend this volume to the consideration of our readers. It would
be impossible, in anything less than a volume, to give the different
details which Mr. Prendergast has brought together with so much
judgment, and at the expense of years of research. We might have
selected some cases from his work, but, on the whole, we think it will
be more satisfactory to the reader to peruse it in its entirety. It may
be obtained from our publishers, Messrs. Longmans and Co.,
Paternoster-row, London.

Rebellious.—If the subject were not so serious, the
way in which the officials wrote about the feelings of the Irish would
almost provoke a smile. They say: "It is the nature of this people to be
rebellious; and they have been so much the more disposed to it, having
been highly exasperated by the transplanting work." Surely they could
not be expected to be anything else but rebellious and exasperated!

Barbadoes.—Threnodia Hib. p. 287.

Evidence.—In a work written expressly to excite
feeling in England against the Irish, it is stated that they [the Irish] failed in the massacre.—See Cromwellian Settlement, p. 5, for further

Tory.—Cromwellian Settlement, p. 150.

No wolves—Declaration printed at Cork, 1650.

Dr. Burgat.—Brevis Relatio. Presented to the Sacred
Congregation in 1667. Dr. Moran's little work, Persecution of the Irish
, gives ample details on this subject; and every statement is
carefully verified, and the authority given for it.

Circumstances.—Lord Roche and his daughters were
compelled to go on foot to Connaught, and his property was divided
amongst the English soldiers. His wife, the Viscountess Roche, was
hanged without a shadow of evidence that she had committed the crime of
which she was accused. Alderman Roche's daughters had nothing to live on
but their own earnings by washing and needlework; and Mr. Luttrell, the
last case mentioned above, was allowed as a favour to occupy his own
while preparing to transplant.

Drove out.—Carte's Ormonde, vol ii. p. 398.

Accounts—Carte's Ormonde, vol. ii. pp. 398, 399. He
considers all "bounties" to him as mere acts of justice.

Trial.—Chief Justice Nugent, afterwards Lord
Riverston, in a letter, dated Dublin, June 23rd, 1686, and preserved in
the State Paper Office, London, says: "There are 5,000 in this kingdom
who were never outlawed."

Cheated.—Books were found in the office of the
surveyor for the county Tipperary alone, in which only 50,000 acres were
returned as unprofitable, and the adventurers had returned
245,207.—Carte's Ormonde, vol. ii. p. 307. "These soldiers," says
Carte, "were for the most part Anabaptists, Independents, and
Levellers." Equal roguery was discovered in other places.

Private.—For full information on this subject, see
Carte's Ormonde, vol. ii. pp. 476-482. I will give one extract to
verify the statement above. "The Duke of Ormonde had, in truth,
difficulties enough to struggle with in the government of Ireland, to
preserve that kingdom in peace, and yet to give those who wished to
imbroil it no handle of exception to the measures he took for that
end."—vol. ii. p. 477.

Royalty.—D'Arcy M'Gee's History of Ireland, vol ii
p. 560.

Army.—Carte says "he was
Scout-Master-General."—Ormonde, vol. ii. p. 473.

Sentenced.—See Dr. Moran's Memoir of the Most Rev.
Dr. Plunkett
. This interesting work affords full details of the
character of the witnesses, the nature of the trial, and the Bishop's
saintly end.

Language—A proclamation in Irish, issued by Tyrone in
1601, is still extant, with a contemporary English translation.—See
Ulster Arch. Jour
. vol. vi. p. 57.

Pope.—He rhymes spirit and merit; fit and yet; civil
and devil; obey and tea.


"The land fornenst the Greekish shore he held."

Chaucer, too, uses faute for fault in the Canterbury Tales.

Historians.—Max Müller—Lectures on the Science of
, p. 271—states, that labourers in country parishes in England
do not use more than 300 words. A friend of mine, who is an excellent
Irish scholar, assures me the most illiterate Irish-speaking peasant
would use at least 500.

Carew.—The tradition of the country says that this
vengeance was excited by the complaints of a lady, with whom the Lord
President had some gallantries, and whose conduct Keating had reproved

Scholars.—We have been favoured with an accurate
photograph of this inscription, by William Williams, Esq., of Dungarvan,
from which the engraving given above has been made. The view of Tubrid
Churchyard is also engraved from a sketch with which he has favoured us.
It is hoped that many Irishmen in distant lands will look with no little
interest on these beautifully executed engravings, and breathe a
blessing on the memory of the good and gifted priest. A Keating Society
was established a few years ago, principally through the exertions of
Mr. Williams and the Rev. P. Meany, C.C. A Catechism in Irish has
already appeared, and other works will follow in due time.

Brought us.—Regal Visitation Book. A.D. 1622, MS.,
Marsh's Library, Dublin.

Excluded.—History of England, People's Edition, part
ii. p. 156.

Desired.—See the Hamilton Manuscripts, Ulster Arch.
. vol. iii. pp. 155-147. Blair complains also that his patron
"would receive the sacrament kneeling."

England.—"The diet, housing, and clothing of the
16,000 families above-mentioned [those were the middle class] is much
the same as in England; nor is the French elegance unknown in many of
them, nor the French and Latin tongues. The latter whereof is very
frequent among the poorest Irish, and chiefly in Kerry, most remote from
Dublin."—Political Anatomy of Ireland, Petty, p. 58.

Antwerp.—Descrittione dei Paesi Bassi: Anvers,

Paid.—The Sovereignly of the British Seas: London,

Little.—Hib. Pac.

Head.—The tract entitled Killing no Murder, which
had disturbed Cromwell's "peace and rest," and obliged him to live
almost as a fugitive in the country over which he had hoped to reign as
a sovereign, still left its impression on English society. The miserable
example of a royal execution was a precedent which no amount of
provocation should have permitted.

Writer.—Merchant's Map of Commerce: London, 1677.

Sex.—The Interest of Ireland in its Trade and
, by Colonel Lawrence: Dublin, 1682.

Tobacco.—A Table of the Belfast Exports and Imports
for the year 1683, has been published in the Ulster Arch. Jour. vol.
iii. p. 194, which fully bears out this statement, and is of immense
value in determining the general state of Irish commerce at this period.
There are, however, some mistakes in the quotations of statistics,
probably misprints.

March.—Gilbert's Dublin, vol. i. p. 178.

Faculty.—Document in the State Paper Office, Dublin,
entitled Smyth's Information for Ireland.

Aloes.Ulster Arch. Jour. vol. iii. p. 163.

Roman Catholics.—The noisy and violent opposition
which was made to a Catholic if he attempted to enter either a trade or
a profession, would scarcely be credited at the present day; yet it
should be known and remembered by those who wish to estimate the social
state of this country accurately and fairly. After the Revolution, the
Protestant portion of the Guild of Tailors petitioned William III. to
make their corporation exclusively Protestant, and their request was

High-street.—Gilbert's Dublin, vol. i. p. 220.

Vision.—Gilbert's Dublin, vol. ii. p. 149.

Castle.—Gilbert's Dublin, vol. ii. p. 69. There is a
curious account in the Quarterly Journal of the Kilkenny Archæological
, July, 1862, p. 165, of a comic playbill, issued for a Kilkenny
theatre, in May, 1793. The value of the tickets was to be taken, if
required, in candles, bacon, soap, butter, and cheese, and no one was to
be admitted into the boxes without shoes and stockings; which leads one
to conclude that the form of admission and style of attire were not
uncommon, or there would have been no joke in the announcement.

Wright.—Domestic Manners, pp. 465, 466: "Oh! what an
excellent thing is an English pudding! Make a pudding for an Englishman,
and you will regale him, be he where he will."

Chamber.—This most interesting and amusing journal is
published in the Ulster Arch. Jour. vol. iii. p. 73, with a
translation and notes. The original is in Latin.

Command.—Mountcashel gave the word "right face;" it
was repeated "right about face." Colonel Hamilton and Captain Lavallin
were tried in Dublin by court-martial for the mistake, and the latter
was shot.

Arrived.—The journals of two officers of the
Williamite army have been published in the Ulster Arch. Jour., and
furnish some interesting details of the subsequent campaign. One of the
writers is called Bonnivert, and was probably a French refugee; the
other was Dr. Davis, a Protestant clergyman, who obtained a captaincy in
William's army, and seemed to enjoy preaching and fighting with equal

Sick.—Harris' Life of King William, p. 254, 1719.
Macaulay's account of the social state of the camp, where there were so
many divines preaching, is a proof that their ministrations were not
very successful, and that the lower order of Irish were not at all below
the English of the same class in education or refinement. "The moans of
the sick were drowned by the blasphemy and ribaldry of their companions.
Sometimes, seated on the body of a wretch who had died in the morning,
might be seen a wretch destined to die before night, cursing, singing
loose songs, and swallowing usquebaugh to the health of the devil. When
the corpses were taken away to be buried, the survivors grumbled. A dead
man, they said, was a good screen and a good stool. Why, when there was
so abundant a supply of such useful articles of furniture, were people
to be exposed to the cold air, and forced to crouch on the moist
ground?"—Macaulay's History of England, People's Ed. part viii. p.

Eminence.—Journal of Captain Davis, published in the Ulster Archæological Journal, vol. iv.

Twenty thousand.—Captain Davis' Journal.

Shoulder.—Davis' Journal The coat was exhibited at the
meeting of the British Association in Belfast, in 1852. It had descended
as an heirloom through Colonel Wetherall, William's aide-de-camp, who
took it off him after the accident.

Career.—History of the King's Inns, p. 239.

Been.—Life of William III. p. 327.

Charge.—See the Green Book, p. 231, for some curious
stories about this engagement, and for a detailed account of St. Ruth's

Government.—Harris' Life of William III. p. 357.

Insignificant.—A petition was sent in to Parliament by
the Protestant porters of Dublin, complaining of Darby Ryan for
employing Catholic porters. The petition was respectfully received, and
referred to a "Committee of Grievances."—Com. Jour. vol. ii. f. 699.
Such an instance, and it is only one of many, is the best indication of
the motive for enacting the penal laws, and the cruelty of them.

Property.—It will be remembered that at this time
Catholics were in a majority of at least five to one over Protestants.
Hence intermarriages took place, and circumstances occurred, in which
Protestants found it their interest to hold property for Catholics, to
prevent it from being seized by others. A gentleman of considerable
property in the county Kerry, has informed me that his property was held
in this way for several generations.

Earn.—One of the articles of the "violated Treaty"
expressly provided that the poor Catholics should be allowed to exercise
their trade. An Act to prevent the further growth of Popery was passed
afterwards, which made it forfeiture of goods and imprisonment for any
Catholic to exercise a trade in Limerick or Galway, except seamen,
fishermen, and day labourers, and they were to be licensed by the
Governor, and not to exceed twenty.—Com. Jour. vol. iii. f. 133.

Palatable.—In his fourth letter he says: "Our
ancestors reduced this kingdom to the obedience of England, in return
for which we have been rewarded with a worse climate, the privilege of
being governed by laws to which we do not consent, a ruined trade, a
house of peers without jurisdiction, almost an incapacity for all
employments, and the dread of Wood's halfpence."

Scheme.—The very bills of some of the companies were
so absurd, that it is marvellous how any rational person could have been
deceived by them. One was "for an undertaking which shall be in due time
revealed." The undertaker was as good as his word. He got £2,000 paid in
on shares one morning, and in the afternoon the "undertaking" was
revealed, for he had decamped with the money. Some wag advertised a
company "for the invention of melting down sawdust and chips, and
casting them into clean deal boards, without cracks or knots."

Schomberg.—He wrote to William of Orange, from before
Dundalk, that the English nation made the worst soldiers he had ever
seen, because they could not bear hardships; "yet," he adds, "the
Parliament and people have a prejudice, that an English new-raised
soldier can beat above six of his enemies."—Dalrymple's Memoirs, vol.
ii. p. 178. According to the records of the War Office in France,
450,000 Irishmen died in the service of that country from 1691 to 1745,
and, in round numbers, as many more from 1745 to the Revolution.

Vassals.—Young's Tour, vol. ii. pp. 41, 42. It
should be remembered that Mr. Young was an Englishman and a Protestant,
and that he had no property in Ireland to blind him to the truth.

Government,—Curry's Historical Review, vol. ii. p.
274, edition of 1786. This work affords a very valuable and accurate
account of the times, written from personal knowledge.

Him.—The ballad of Soggarth Aroon (priest, dear) was
written by John Banim, in 1831. It is a most true and vivid expression
of the feelings of the Irish towards their priests.

Possess.—While these pages were passing through the
press, a circumstance has occurred which so clearly illustrates the
position of the Irish priest, that I cannot avoid mentioning it. A
gentleman has purchased some property, and his first act is to give his
three tenants notice to quit. The unfortunate men have no resource but
to obey the cruel mandate, and to turn out upon the world homeless and
penniless. They cannot go to law, for the law would be against them.
They are not in a position to appeal to public opinion, for they are
only farmers. The parish priest is their only resource and their only
friend. He appeals to the feelings of their new landlord in a most
courteous letter, in which he represents the cruel sufferings these
three families must endure. The landlord replies that he has bought the
land as a "commercial speculation," and of course he has a right to do
whatever he considers most for his advantage; but offers to allow the
tenants to remain if they consent to pay double their former rent—a
rent which would be double the real value of the land. Such cases are
constantly occurring, and are constantly exposed by priests; and we have
known more than one instance in which fear of such exposure has obtained
justice. A few of them are mentioned from time to time in the Irish
local papers. The majority of cases are entirely unknown, except to the
persons concerned; but they are remembered by the poor sufferers and
their friends. I believe, if the people of England were aware of
one-half of these ejectments, and the sufferings they cause, they would
rise up as a body and demand justice for Ireland and the Irish; they
would marvel at the patience with which what to them would be so
intolerable has been borne so long.

Free trade,—A very important work was published in
1779, called The Commercial Restraints of Ireland Considered. It is a
calm and temperate statement of facts and figures. The writer shows that
the agrarian outrages of the Whiteboys were caused by distress, and
quotes a speech Lord Northumberland to the same effect.—Com. Res., p.

Writers.—As a general rule, when Irishmen succeed
either in literature, politics, or war, the credit of their performances
is usually debited to the English; when they fail, we hear terrible
clamours of Irish incapacity. Thackeray commences his "English Humourists of the Eighteenth Century" with Swift, and ends them with
Goldsmith! I do not suppose he had any intention of defrauding the
Celtic race; he simply followed the usual course. Irishmen are, perhaps,
themselves most to blame, for much of this is caused by their suicidal
deference to a dominant race.

Order.—The Presentation Order was founded by Miss Nano
Nagle, of Cork.

Leadbeater.—Annals of Ballitore, vol. i. p. 50, second
edition, 1862. I shall refer to this interesting work again.

Man.—The exact words are: "If a man were to go by
chance at the same time with Burke, under a shed to shun a shower, he
would say: 'This is an extraordinary man.'"—Boswell's Johnson, vol.
iv. p. 245. Foster's version is as above.

Developed.—Since this sentence was penned, I find,
with great satisfaction, that a similar view has been taken by a recent
writer. See Secularia; or, Surveys on the Main Stream of History, by
S. Lucas, p. 250. He opens a chapter on the revolt of the American
States thus: "The relations of Great Britain to its colonies, past and
present, are an important part of the history of the world; and the form
which these relations may hereafter take, will be no small element in
the political future.
Even our Professors of History ... abstain from
noticing their system of government, or the predisposing motives to
their subsequent revolt.
." The italics are our own. Neglect of the
study of Irish history is, I believe, also, one of the causes why Irish
grievances are not remedied by the English Government. But grievances
may get settled in a way not always satisfactory to the neglecters of
them, while they are waiting their leisure to investigate their cause.

Writer.—Morley. Edmund Burke, an Historical Study: Macmillan and Co., 1867. A masterly work, and one which every statesman,
and every thinker would do well to peruse carefully. He says: "The
question to be asked by every statesman, and by every citizen, with
reference to a measure that is recommended to him as the enforcement of
a public right, is whether the right is one which it is to the public
advantage to enforce."—p. 146.

Exile.—Maguire's Irish in America, p. 355: "It would
seem as if they instinctively arrayed themselves in hostility to the
British power; a fact to be explained alike by their love of liberty,
and their vivid remembrance of recent or past misgovernment." The
italics are our own. The penal laws were enacted with the utmost rigour
against Catholics in the colonies, and the only place of refuge was
Maryland, founded by the Catholic Lord Baltimore. Here there was liberty
of conscience for all, but here only. The sects who had fled to America
to obtain "freedom to worship God," soon manifested their determination
that no one should have liberty of conscience except themselves, and
gave the lie to their own principles, by persecuting each other for the
most trifling differences of opinion on religious questions, in the
cruelest manner. Cutting off ears, whipping, and maiming were in
constant practice. See Maguire's Irish in America, p. 349; Lucas' Secularia, pp. 220-246.

Irishman.—See Cooper's Naval History.

England.—He wrote to Thompson, from London, saying
that he could effect nothing: "The sun of liberty is set; we must now
light up the candles of industry." The Secretary replied, with Celtic
vehemence: "Be assured we shall light up torches of a very different
kind." When the Catholics of the United States sent up their celebrated
Address to Washington, in 1790, he alludes in one part of his reply to
the immense assistance obtained from them in effecting the Revolution:
"I presume that your fellow-citizens will not forget the patriotic part
which you took in the accomplishment of their revolution and the
establishment of their government, or the important assistance they
received from a nation in which the Roman Catholic religion is

Morley.—Edmund Burke, an Historical Study, p. 181.

People.—Chesterfield said, in 1764, that the poor
people in Ireland were used "worse than negroes." "Aristocracy," said
Adam Smith, "was not founded in the natural and respectable distinctions
of birth and fortune, but in the most odious of all distinctions, those
of religious and political prejudices—distinctions which, more than any
other, animate both the insolence of the oppressors, and the hatred and
indignation of the oppressed."—Morley's Edmund Burke, p. 183.

Fully.—See Curran's Letters and Speeches: Dublin,

Clergy.—Barrington says, in his Rise and Fall of the
Irish Nation
, p. 67, the Catholic clergy had every inclination to
restrain their flocks within proper limits, and found no difficulty in
effecting that object. The first statement is unquestionably true; the
second statement is unfortunately disproved by many painful facts.

Them.—Vol. ii. p. 93.

Oath.—I give authority for these details. In the
spring of 1796, three Orangemen swore before a magistrate of Down and
Armagh, that the Orangemen frequently met in committees, amongst whom
were some members of Parliament, who gave them money, and promised that
they should not suffer for any act they might commit, and pledged
themselves that they should be provided for by Government. The
magistrate informed the Secretary of State, and asked how he should act;
but he never received any answer, for further details on this head, see
Plowden's History of the Insurrection.

Sermons.—On the 1st of July, 1795, the Rev. Mr.
Monsell, a Protestant clergyman of Portadown, invited his flock to
celebrate the anniversary of the battle of the Boyne by attending
church, and preached such a sermon against the Papists that his
congregation fell on every Catholic they met going home, beat them
cruelly, and finished the day by murdering two farmer's sons, who were
quietly at work in a bog.—Mooney's History of Ireland, p. 876.

Indemnity.—Lord Carhampton sent 1,300 men on board the
fleet, on mere suspicion. They demanded a trial in vain. An Act of
Indemnity was at once passed, to free his Lordship from any unpleasant

Remember Orr.—Lives and Times of the United
, second series, vol. ii. p. 380.

Sway.—An important instance of how the memory or
tradition of past wrongs excites men to seize the first opportunity of
revenge, if not of redress, has occurred in our own times. It is a
circumstance which should be very carefully pondered by statesmen who
have the real interest of the whole nation at heart. It is a
circumstance, as a sample of many other similar cases, which should be
known to every Englishman who wishes to understand the cause of "Irish
disturbances." One of the men who was shot by the police during the late
Fenian outbreak in Ireland, was a respectable farmer named Peter
Crowley. His history tells the motive for which he risked and lost his
life. His grandfather had been outlawed in the rebellion of '98. His
uncle, Father Peter O'Neill, had been imprisoned and flogged most
barbarously, with circumstances of peculiar cruelty
, in Cork, in the
year 1798. The memory of the insult and injury done to a priest, who was
entirely guiltless of the crimes with which he was charged, left a
legacy of bitterness and hatred of Saxon rule in the whole family,
which, unhappily, religion failed to eradicate. Peter Crowley was a
sober, industrious, steady man, and his parish priest, who attended his
deathbed, pronounced his end "most happy and edifying." Three clergymen
and a procession of young men, women, and children, scattering flowers
before the coffin, and bearing green boughs, attended his remains to the
grave. He was mourned as a patriot, who had loved his country, not
wisely, but too well; and it was believed that his motive for joining
the Fenian ranks was less from a desire of revenge, which would have
been sinful, than from a mistaken idea of freeing his country from a
repetition of the cruelties of '98, and from her present grievances.

Sufferer.—Plowden, Hist. p. 102.

Sanction.—His son says: "His estimate of the people
led him to appreciate justly the liveliness of their parts. But while he
knew their vices, and the origin of them, he knew that there was in
their character much of the generosity and warmth of feeling which made
them acutely sensitive when they were treated considerately and kindly.
His judgment of the upper classes of society, and of the purity and
wisdom of the government, was less favorable. He saw that the gentry
were imperfectly educated; that they were devoted to the pursuits of
pleasure and political intrigue; and that they were ignorant or
neglectful of the duties imposed on them as landlords, and as the
friends and protectors of those who depended on them for their
existence."—Memoir of Sir Ralph Abercrombie, p. 72.

All.—Lord Holland says, in his Memoirs of the Whig
: "The fact is incontestable that the people of Ireland were
driven to resistance, which, possibly, they meditated before, by the
free quarters and excesses of the soldiery, which are not permitted in
civilized warfare, even in an enemy's country." The state prisoners
declared the immediate cause of the rising was "the free quarters, the
house-burnings, the tortures, and the military executions."

Success.—The real betrayer of this brave but
unfortunate nobleman has only been discovered of late years. Dr. Madden
was the first to throw light upon the subject. He discovered the item of
£1,000 entered in the Secret Service Money-book, as paid to F.H. for
the discovery of L.E.F. The F.H. was undoubtedly Francis Higgins, better
known as the Sham Squire, whose infamous career has been fully exposed
by Mr. Fitzpatrick. In the fourth volume of the United Irishmen, p.
579, Dr. Madden still expresses his doubt as to who was the person
employed by Higgins as "setter." It evidently was some one in the
secrets of Lord Edward's party. The infamous betrayer has been at last
discovered, in the person of Counsellor Magan, who received at various
times large sums of money from Government for his perfidy. See the Sham
, p. 114. Higgins was buried at Kilbarrack, near Clontarf. In
consequence of the revelations of his vileness, which have been lately
brought before the public, the tomb was smashed to pieces, and the
inscription destroyed. See Mr. Fitzpatrick's Ireland before the Union,
p. 152.

Murphy.—Rev. Mr. Gordon says: "Some of the soldiers of
the Ancient British regiment cut open the dead body of Father Michael
Murphy, after the battle of Arklow, took out his heart, roasted his
body, and oiled their boots with the grease which dropped from
it."—History of the Rebellion, p. 212.

Suffer.—Annals of Ballitore, vol. i. p. 227.

Prospered.—This gives an average of about eight
persons to each house. There were 22,276 inhabited houses in Dublin in
1861, and the population was 254,480. This would leave an average of
eleven persons to each house. There are only seventy-five carpenters in Thom's Directory, and sixty-four cabinet makers: if we give them an
average of ten men each in their employment, it would not give more than
680 at the trade in all.

Own.—History of the United States, p. 3. Ludlow and
Hughes; Macmillan, London, 1862. The title of this work is singularly
infelicitous, for it is merely a sketchy and not very clear account of
the late war in America.

Spirit.—History of the United States, p. 7.

Policy.—Morley's Burke, p. 153.

Annulled.—Historical and Philosophical Essays,
Senior, vol. i. p. 197.