Phoenix Park is the largest enclosed urban public park in Europe located 3 km to the north west of Dublin city centre. It measures 712 hectares (1,760 acres), with a walled circumference of 16 km that contains large areas of grassland and tree-lined avenues. The Phoenix Park was established in 1662 by one of Ireland’s most
illustrious viceroys, James Butler, Duke of Ormond, on behalf of King
Charles II. Conceived as a Royal deer park, it originally included the
demesne of Kilmainham Priory south of the River Liffey, but with the
building of the Royal Hospital at Kilmainham, which commenced in 1680,
the Park was reduced to its present size, all of which is now north of
The park has been home to a herd of wild Fallow deer since the seventeenth century.
The residence of the President of Ireland (Áras an Uachtaráin) built in 1754 is located in the park.
Other landmarks are Wellington Spire and the Papal Cross.