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It is situated on a hilltop giving a view across the area for protection purposes.
Begun as a monastic settlement, in around 458, it was at its peak an Anglo-Norman walled town with seven gates and seven, or perhaps eight, roads.
Little now remains beyond a damaged round tower and a churchyard.
This town was perhaps related to the nearby Dun Ailinne, a ceremonial and possible palace site related to the kings of Leinster, though Dun Ailinne precedes any known settlement at Old Kilcullen.
Old Kilcullen was raided by Vikings, landing at the location of the modern town, at least twice, in 932 and 936.
The current town, officially known, mapped and recorded on legal documents, as Kilcullen Bridge, developed after 1319 when a bridge was constructed here across the River Liffey by Canon Maurice Jakis, of Kildare Cathedral.
It took gradually from the previous settlement.
Originally, as shown on maps even as late as the late 1700s, the new settlement was wholly on the eastern bank of the Liffey.
The settlement features an historic church and graveyard, with an extant round tower.
Kilcullen was influenced for much of its history by the Eustace family, one of whose seats was at Castlemartin.
Castlemartin is now the Irish home of famous Irish businessman, Tony O Reilly.